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I^^^^^^VI^H 




IN 
THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS 



OCT 1 1 200; 

Tuskegee Years 

What Father Arrupe Got Me Into 



James S. Torrens, S.J. 



•SSfSSS 



BX3701 .S88x 

Studies in the spirituality of Jesuits. 

v.37:no.3(2005:fall) 

Current Periodicals 



37/3 • FALL 2005 



THE SEMINAR ON JESUIT SPIRITUALITY 

The Seminar is composed of a number of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in the 
United States. 

It concerns itself with topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and practice of 
Jesuits, especially United States Jesuits, and communicates the results to the members of 
the provinces through its publication, STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS. This is 
done in the spirit of Vatican Li's recommendation that religious institutes recapture the 
original inspiration of their founders and adapt it to the circumstances of modern times. 
The Seminar welcomes reactions or comments in regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the Jesuits of 
the United States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits of other regions, to 
other priests, religious, and laity, to both men and women. Hence, the journal, while 
meant especially for American Jesuits, is not exclusively for them. Others who may find 
it helpful are cordially welcome to make use of it. 

CURRENT MEMBERS OF THE SEMINAR 

James W. Bernauer, S.J,, teaches philosophy at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 
(2004). 

Richard A. Blake, S.J., is chairman of the Seminar and editor of STUDIES; he teaches 
film studies at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. (2002). 

Kevin Burke, S.J., teaches systematic theology at Weston Jesuit School of Theology, 
Cambridge, Mass. (2003). 

T. Frank Kennedy, S.J., teaches music and is director of the Jesuit Institute at Bos- 
ton College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. (2004). 

Gerald L. McKevitt, S.J., teaches history at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, Cal. 
(2005). 

Dennis L. McNamara, S.J., teaches sociology at Georgetown University, Washing- 
ton, D.C. (2005) 

William E. Reiser, SJ., teaches theology at the College of the Holy Cross, Worces- 
ter, Mass. (2004). 

Philip J. Rosato, S.J., teaches theology at St. Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(2005) 

Thomas L Schubeck, S.J., teaches social ethics at John Carroll University, Univer- 
sity Heights, Ohio (2004). 

Dennis C. Smolarski, S.J., teaches mathematics and computer science at Santa Clara 
University, Santa Clara, Cal. (2003). 

The opinions expressed in STUDIES are those of the individual authors thereof. 
Parentheses designate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

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Tuskegee Years 

What Father Arrupe Got Me Into 



James S. Torrens, S.J. 



STUDIES in THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS 

37/3 • FALL 2005 



/ \ 

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\v s j 



The first word . . . 



"The Sixties" get a bum rap. To the conservatives among us, the term 
suggests the collapse of civil order and the beginning of the implosion of 
the Roman Catholic Church as we knew and loved it. To liberals it stirs 
misty-eyed memories of promises unfulfilled. Those of us who define our- 
selves, like John Courtney Murray, as "the radical center" have mixed 
feelings about the era. Sure, it was a crazy time, but in fairness, let's say 
something positive about "The Sixties." It was, after all, the period when 
we, as Americans and Jesuits, took enormous strides in facing the racial 
inequities that remained as a legacy of centuries of slavery and legally 
sanctioned racial discrimination. That was no small achievement for any 
decade. No, we haven't erased all injustices, but rather than fret about how 
far we still have to go, it might be salutary to recall where we began this 
journey. 

By one of those strange coincidences, this issue was in preparation 
during the trial of Edgar Ray Killen, 81, the former Ku Klux Klan leader 
who now stands convicted of arranging the murder of three Freedom 
Riders, Michael Schwerner, James Earl Chaney, and Andrew Goodman in 
1964. The three victims had volunteered to spend the summer traveling 
through the South to register black voters, but Klansmen ambushed them 
and buried their bodies outside Philadelphia, Mississippi. The wall of 
silence in the town enabled the state to decline to prosecute the case for 
lack of evidence. When the U.S. Department of Justice brought federal 
charges, one juror held out, and the resulting hung jury could not provide 
a verdict. With a wink and a smile Mr. Killen walked away a free man. It 
took forty-one years for Mississippi prosecutors to bring in a conviction, 
but they got one, even though it was for the lesser charge of manslaughter. 

The events took place a long, long time ago. Are they best forgotten 
as we move forward? I think not. They seem unpleasant incidents from a 
bygone era, as indeed they are, but they cast a dark shadow through the 
years to the present. For this reason alone, it would be a terrible mistake 
to write them off as aberrations of the distant past, and it would be tragic 
to allow them to be forgotten. Look back to those early years of what 
came to be known as the civil-rights movement, the lunch counter sit-ins, 
and the incident involving Rosa Parks, the black woman in Montgomery, 
Alabama, who refused to give her seat to a white man on a bus in 1954. 
How much remains in our collective memory? Let's try a quiz of a few 
other names from the beginnings of that bumpy journey, to see how much 



HI 



we remember, and more to the point how much we've forgotten about 
those days. 

Orville Faubus. In late 1954, in Brown v. Board of Education, the 
U.S. Supreme Court ruled that all citizens had equal claim to an educa- 
tion, and that segregated schools did in fact fail to provide equal opportu- 
nities. After delaying the mandated integration of public schools for over a 
year, Gov. Orville Faubus of Arkansas called out the National Guard to 
prevent nine black children from entering a Little Rock elementary school. 
President Eisenhower had to nationalize the Guard, thus removing it from 
the governor's control and placing it directly under the command of the 
president, as commander in chief. As some commentators pointed out, it 
was the first time federal troops had enforced the law in a Southern state 
since Reconstruction ended in 1872. Recall that in those days a Republi- 
can president had little to lose in a solidly Democratic South. That does 
sound like ancient history. 

Ross Burnett. In 1962 James Meredith enrolled in the University of 
Mississippi, but Governor Barnett resolved he would never attend a class. 
President Kennedy, as a Democrat, had to proceed a bit more cautiously. 
As a Catholic, he had a more precarious hold on the Democratic South. 
He instructed federal marshals to accompany Mr. Meredith through both 
the angry crowds and the state police Governor Barnett had ordered to 
keep him from entering. Several of us kept a clandestine radio in the 
basement of the scholasticate and slipped down the back stairs between 
classes to see if the confrontation had led to rioting or gunfire between the 
two law-enforcement agencies. It was a scary time. 

George Wallace. After losing his first gubernatorial election to a 
Klansman, John Patterson, on the charge that he was soft on segregation, 
Wallace based his next campaign on the slogan "Segregation now, segrega- 
tion tomorrow, and segregation forever," and he won in 1962. The next 
year, two black students tried to enroll at the University of Alabama, and 
Wallace vowed he would personally block their entry. It was a season of 
particular violence throughout Alabama in those days. Remember the four 
little girls killed in a church in Birmingham in 1963 and Martin Luther 
King's arrest and famous "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" that same year. 
The confrontation on Edmund Pettiss Bridge in Selma would take place a 
few months later. In order to restore order, President Kennedy turned to 
the Eisenhower tactic of nationalizing the Guard after negotiations with 
Governor Wallace failed. Wallace, it will be recalled, ran for president in 
1964 and surprised everyone with his strong showing in the Democratic 
primaries even in the North. But 1964 was the year of Barry Goldwater, 
and despite his loss, his candidacy began the inexorable move of the "solid 
South" toward the Republican Party. 

Lester Maddox. After President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act in 
1965, reaction against integration intensified. Mr. Maddox owned the 



IV 



Pickrick Restaurant in Atlanta and made headlines by guarding his estab- 
lishment armed with a pick handle in order to bar entry to any black 
patrons. In 1966 he was elected governor, even though he had never held 
elective office before. The pick handle became the symbol for his campaign, 
and he gave out autographed replicas for souvenirs. 

If recalling Rosa Parks and these four governors has helped to re- 
create the spirit of the times, it is only logical to wonder what American 
Jesuits were doing during this terrifying period in our history. Let's go back 
a few years to get a wider perspective. Here's another name that few Jesu- 
its have recognized in my informal polling. 

Claude Heithaus. Following the economic pattern of the post-colonial 
period, Jesuits owned slaves, and after emancipation for the most part 
followed local customs on segregation. In November 1944 Father Claude 
Heithaus used the pulpit of St. Francis Xavier Church at St. Louis Univer- 
sity to denounce segregation in the Catholic schools and churches of the 
region, especially at the university. He was warned about his inflammatory 
message, but he refused to be silent. As a result, his continued insistence 
on bringing this issue into the public forum became a matter of obedience 
in the mind of some superiors. With the consent, and perhaps more than 
consent, of Cardinal Joseph Glennon, Father Heithaus was removed from 
his position as a professor of classical archaeology at St. Louis University 
and transferred to Fort Riley, Kansas, as a military chaplain. (The official 
Website of the Archdiocese of St. Louis provides a remarkably candid 
assessment of racial issues during Cardinal Glennon's time.) Despite Father 
Heithaus's quasi exile, St. Louis University was in fact the first Catholic 
university in a former slave state to admit students of color, even though 
integration into the life of the campus remained a sensitive issue for many 
years. A year after leaving St. Louis, Father Heithaus resumed his academic 
work at Marquette, and after fourteen years was able to return to St. 
Louis. 

One can only imagine the heated reactions on both sides that re- 
sulted from this controversy. The matter would have gone to Rome, but 
the superior general, Wlodimir Ledochowski, had died in 1942. Because of 
the war, nearly four years passed before a congregation could be convoked 
to elect the new general, Jean-Baptiste Janssens, in September 1946. In the 
meantime, administration of the American Assistancy fell to Father Vin- 
cent McCormick, who asked John Courtney Murray to compose a docu- 
ment sorting out the issues raised by the Heithaus uproar. References to 
"the Negro" and "our" responsibilities to "him" grate a bit on contempo- 
rary ears, but the call for justice and equality leaves no doubt about Mur- 
ray's conclusions: "The fact that he [the Negro] is barred from our schools 
is a scandal." His observation that "social justice obliges us to do only 
what is possible at the moment" might have provided a bit too much 
wiggle room for the hesitant, but he was clear in his call for action. (The 



complete text is available in Woodstock Letters 97, no. 3 [Summer 1968]). 
In the absence of a general and with the chaos of the postwar period, the 
matter seems to have lost its urgency in official Rome. When Vatican II 
gathered, it placed issues of poverty and injustice on a wider canvass. 

This should not lead one to conclude that Jesuits in the United 
States were doing nothing. American society as a whole was beginning to 
recognize racism as a moral evil and American institutions, those of the 
Society included, were examining their own consciences and making 
changes. Some few visionaries were genuine leaders. Some Jesuits found 
the changes long overdue; others found them precipitous. But on the 
whole our history was not a source of pride in this period; we failed to 
exert moral leadership when it was urgently needed. The parade had be- 
gun, and we risked letting it pass us by, or joining in with others who had 
already begun this great march toward equality. When Father Arrupe 
responded to the racial crisis that seemed to be tearing American society 
apart in the 1960s, as we have seen, he wrote: "Unfortunately, our aposto- 
late to the Negro in the United States has depended chiefly upon individ- 
ual initiatives and very little upon a corporate effort of the Society." He 
noted the service to disenfranchised groups in the past, but observed chill- 
ingly: "As the immigrant groups advanced economically, educationally, 
politically, and socially, the Society of Jesus came to become identified 
more and more with the middle-class, white segment of the population." 
(The complete text of this letter of November 1, 1967, is also available in 
Woodstock Letters 97, no. 3.) 

This brief historical reflection raises more questions than it answers. 
What happened to our "apostolate to the Negro," as Father Arrupe calls 
the work in the quaint language of the day? Quite a bit, to be sure, but 
much less than we might have expected in the heady days of President 
Johnson's Great Society, when we Americans thought we could heal our 
divisions merely by identifying them. It might have been a classic case of 
Jesuit hubris coupled with naive American optimism. 

As men of their time, Father Murray and Father Arrupe made the 
mistake of thinking, or at least writing, in monolithic terms about "the 
Negro." As early as the mid-1960s serious splits within the African Ameri- 
can community became apparent. Martin Luther King's creation of a 
nonviolent movement in the quest for justice, based in the churches and 
animated by biblical language, provided a congenial setting for collabora- 
tion with Catholic organizations. The Nation of Islam under Elijah Mu- 
hammad and Malcolm X, and more recently under Louis Farrakhan, 
proved more confrontational and less hospitable to outsiders. When Mal- 
colm X and Dr. King were both assassinated, in 1965 and 1968 respec- 
tively, their ideas seemed to morph into a kaleidoscope of different ideolog- 
ical positions. 



VI 



We liberals of the sixties thought of complete integration as the 
goal. Any visit to a college dining center can shatter that fantasy. Some 
African Americans simply prefer to socialize with people who share their 
heritage, as do whites and Asians. We (black and white people both) soon 
had to address the complex questions of the desirability and morality of 
social engineering in ways we never imagined in the sixties. It's taken us a 
while to understand the delicate balancing act involved in being "inte- 
grated" while maintaining one's racial and ethnic identity. 

Over the past year I had the occasion to work through all the films 
of Spike Lee, our most successful African American director. In School Daze 
(1988) Dep, a campus activist played by a very young Larry Fishburne, is 
summoned to the dean's office for leading a disruptive demonstration. He 
dismisses the administrators contemptuously as "civil rights Negroes" who 
have nothing to teach him. Clearly, Dep feels that there is a generation 
gap. Through the character, Lee tries to tell us (black and white audiences 
alike) that a lot has changed since the sixties. In one film after another, 
Lee holds up a mirror to the complex dynamics within black society: pov- 
erty and wealth, education and ignorance, black identity and assimilation, 
collaboration and resistance, self-confidence and self-delusion. As a Euro- 
pean American I learned a great deal, and more to the point, I was contin- 
ually embarrassed at my ignorance about these issues. Surely, I knew that 
the expanding black middle class faces issues far different from those of 
people caught in poverty, but I failed to appreciate adequately the extent 
of the tensions within different segments of the African American commu- 
nity. Did the ghost of "the Negro" still haunt my intellectual attic? 

Surely I come late to the game; others have been far more percep- 
tive. Among American Jesuits today we don't hear much about the "inter- 
racial apostolate" anymore. A perusal of the Catalogus is instructive. Each 
of the provinces has an office or director for "social" or "pastoral" minis- 
tries, but none has an office for "interracial" activities. That may be a 
healthy sign. We have learned to work alongside people of all races in all 
kinds of ministries to all kinds of people on every rung of the socioeco- 
nomic ladder without making the racial distinctions that seemed so clear 
to Fathers Heithaus, Murray, and Arrupe. No, it's not perfect, but think 
back to the sixties and thank God for the progress we've made in under- 
standing and refining the complexities of race-related issues. 

STUDIES is grateful to Jim Torrens for sharing his Tuskegee diary 
with us. His adventure takes place on the cusp of history: after Brown v. 
Board of Education and the Civil Rights Act but while the spirit of Wal- 
lace, Maddox, and the Klan were still very much alive in the South and 
beyond. Through his eyes we can reconstruct an era that brought "faith 
and justice" issues to the center of the Jesuit mission. He helps us recall 
those days when superiors struggled to balance the Society's commitment 
to its institutions and traditional ministries with its encouragement of 



VII 



individual initiatives in meeting the needs of the day. As a teacher of 
literature he was caught in the conflict between standard English and black 
English, a seemingly arcane issue to the outside observer, but one that 
holds enormous implications for racial identity at a traditionally black 
college like Tuskegee. The local Catholic Church, he discovered, had its 
own time-tested, but questionable style for ministering to local congrega- 
tions. How does a newcomer respond to these internal matters? Jim's 
narrative is a deeply personal statement, but its very humanness should 
not lull readers into missing the serious issues that we Jesuits wrestied with 
then and continue to face in our ministries today. 

A few second words. . . . 

STUDIES stands corrected. Two of our readers, both alumni of St. Andrew- 
on-Hudson in the 1950s, alerted me to a long-held misconception about 
the supposedly surreptitious burial of Teilhard de Chardin. Both person- 
ally attended the interment with the full St. Andrew's community. The 
novices and juniors did not have an Easter week off-campus recreation that 
day, as I had often heard and had repeated in "The first word." Our read- 
ers recall that it was raining heavily that day, and the casket was placed in 
the crypt under the chapel until a permanent resting place could be pre- 
pared in the cemetery. During the final commendation, the novices and 
juniors gathered on the portico, one story above the entrance to the burial 
vault, and somewhat out of the sight line to those immediately surround- 
ing the casket below. The choir sang the customary Benedictus. The cere- 
mony took place at the rear of the building, an unattractive setting that 
included various service entrances and at the time a coal yard. Those who 
insisted that Father Teilhard de Chardin had not received the respect he 
deserved from the Society may simply have failed to account for the 
weather and architecture of the building. More likely, it is a part of the 
oral tradition that took on a life of its own some years later, when Teilhard 
was thought to be "controversial." 

Equally eagle-eyed readers might have noticed the annual change in 
our cast of characters printed on the inside front cover. The Seminar says 
goodbye and thanks to Tom Rausch and Greg Chisholm, two stalwarts, 
who leave us to enjoy the pleasures of golden California without the intru- 
sive and relentless e-mails from Seminar Central. 

We'll be joined for the next three years by Gerry McKevitt, the 
Ignacio Ellacuria, S.J., Professor for Jesuit Studies at Santa Clara Univer- 
sity. A UCLA historian, Gerry has specialized in the history of the American 
West and the Society. His interests converge in his forthcoming book, 
Brokers of Culture: Italian Jesuits in the American West, 1848-1919. 



Vlll 



Dennis McNamara is the Park Professor of Sociology and Korean 
Studies at Georgetown. A survivor of Harvard, a postdoctoral year at 
Berkeley, the Fulbright Commission, and the National Science Founda- 
tion, he has collaborated widely with educational and governmental pro- 
jects throughout East Asia. His most recent book is Market and Society in 
Korea: Interests, Institutions and the Textile Industry in Korea. 

Phil Rosato has recently arrived at the Theology Department at St. 
Joseph's University in Philadelphia after a thirty -year stint at the Grego- 
rian University in Rome. After completing his studies at Tubingen, he 
specialized in sacramental theology. Phil has compiled a lengthy list of 
articles in the scholarly journals, and his Introduction to the Theology of the 
Sacraments has been translated into Spanish, Italian, and Polish. 

Welcome to the new arrivals! I'm sure readers of STUDIES will get to 
know them and appreciate their work in the near future. 



Richard A. Blake, S.J. 

Editor 



IX 



CONTENTS 



I. Introduction 1 

n. The Journal 6 

m. Afterword 33 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 38 



XI 



James S. Torrens, S.J., of the California Province, is 
currently on the staff of Cardinal Timothy Manning 
House of Prayer for Priests in Los Angeles. After com- 
pleting his doctoral work in English at the University 
of Michigan, he taught for three semesters at Tuske- 
gee Institute in Alabama before joining the English 
department at Santa Clara University. He served as 
associate editor at America for nine years, and before 
his present assignment taught at Universidad Ibero- 
americana Noroeste in Tijuana, Mexico for three years. 
He authored Presenting Paradise: Dante's "Paradise," 
Translation and Commentary and most recently a vol- 
ume of poems entitled Uphill Running. 



xn 



Tuskegee Years 

What Father Arrupe Got Me Into 



During the social turbulence that accompanied the civil- 
rights movement in the United States, Father Arrupe en- 
couraged American Jesuits to become involved in one of the 
great moral movements of the time. Responding to the 
challenge involved more complications than one Jesuit might 
have imagined. After more than thirty-five years, Father 
Torrens now shares the diary he kept of his experiences. His 
recollections put a human face on the great and puzzling 
events of that era. 



I. Introduction 

In the summer of 1968 I headed south to Alabama in an old Ford 
Fairlane to begin teaching at Tuskegee Institute. The world was 
at a boil in 1968 as seldom before or since. The Prague Spring 
had been a brave if premature defiance of Communism. Student 
protest was surging in Paris, in Mexico City, and worldwide. In the 
United States, racial unrest had peaked with the murder of Dr. 
Martin Luther King Jr. and the subsequent firestorm in American 
cities. Vietnam had the American conscience roiled, and Humanae 
vitas did the same for American Catholics. Here was I, a young Jesuit 
of Italian-Irish background, emerging from the mole hole of doctoral 
studies to foster learning at one of the traditional black colleges. 

Tuskegee (Tuss-kee-ghee) Institute, in Alabama, between 
Montgomery and Columbus, Georgia, was the creation of Booker T. 
Washington, who wished southern blacks to get enough basic 
learning and practical skills to survive American apartheid. The 
Institute, besides fostering the research of George Washington 
Carver, became something of a free zone for African-Americans in 
hostile territory. When I arrived, Tuskegee had programs in nursing, 



2 4> James S. Torrens, S.J. 

veterinary medicine, and engineering; it also had an Ed school, 
nascent science and humanities majors, and a renowned choir. Just 
up the road but in another world was Auburn University. 

Getting approved for Tuskegee had already been the big 
adventure of my life. On All Saints Day in 1967, our superior gen- 
eral, Father Pedro Arrupe, wrote to American Jesuits urging us into 
action for interracial justice. His letter was the work of two U.S. 
Jesuits whom he called to Rome, William Kenealy of the Boston 
College Law School and Louis Twomey of New Orleans. Twomey, a 
graduate of the Institute for Social Order (ISO) at St. Louis Univer- 
sity, became director of the Institute for Industrial Relations and the 
Institute of Human Relations at Loyola University, New Orleans. 
Starting in 1948, he mimeographed a newsletter, Chrisfs Blueprint for 
the South, and sent it to Jesuits in formation all over the country. In 
its spectrum of social concerns, racial justice loomed the largest. I 
was very much affected by it. Kenealy was professor and dean at the 
Boston College Law School and was active for a seven-year stint as 
visiting professor at Loyola New Orleans. In the late sixties he 
initiated the national office of the Jesuit Social Apostolate. 

Twomey and Kenealy, old collaborators, worked through a 
number of drafts of Father Arrupe's letter with the American Assis- 
tant, Father Harold Small, and the General Assistant, Father Vincent 
O'Keefe, before arriving at a version that suited the General. This 
letter, one of Father Arrupe's earliest initiatives, answered his deep 
concern over the current racial crisis in the United States. His dis- 
quiet had been sharpened by a visit from Whitney Young, director 
of the National Urban League and a major player in the civil rights 
movement. 

Father General saw much promise in the situation of ferment, 
which could open a door to equality and dignity for black Ameri- 
cans. His letter did not mention sit-ins, protests, or marches, but 
focused instead on the changes mandated by the Supreme Court, 
beginning in 1954, with its "justly famous" decision in the School 
Segregation Cases. This series of cases, beginning in 1952, is best 
known for Brown v. Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas. This 
ruling "held that compulsory racial segregation is irreconcilable with 
'equal protection of the laws,'" as mandated in the U.S. Constitution. 
Father Arrupe ventured to say, "In God's Providence, a new and 
hopeful era in race relations has now dawned." But this hopeful 



Tuskegee Years <& 3 



view was shadowed by the very real danger of a widening violence 
and bitter division. 

If resistance on the part of a hostile white community, with extreme 
reaction on the part of more militant Negroes, defeats this effort, not 
only will an historic opportunity be lost, but a permanent fracture in 
the structure of national life will become an awesome possibility. . . . 
The riots and bloodshed accompanying racial strife in the United 
States have given us grim forewarning of the danger lurking. * 

Father Arrupe wanted all American Jesuits to be clear that 
"racism in all its ugly manifestations ... is objectively a moral and 
religious evil. ... As such it can never be solved adequately by civil 
laws or civil courts. It must also be solved by the consciences of men. 
American Jesuits cannot, must not, stand aloof/' He grounded this 
statement of principle in "the Christian concept of man" (these were 
the days before inclusive language), which forbids any odious 
distinctions against a brother in Christ. He bolsters his argument by 
quotations from the Second Vatican Council ("Declaration on the 
Relationship of the Church to Non-Christian Religions") and from 
the 1958 statement of the American hierarchy, "Discrimination and 
the Christian Conscience." 

The Arrupe letter is blunt with American Jesuits. 

It is humbling to remember that, until recently, a number of Jesuit 
institutions did not admit qualified Negroes, even in areas where 
civil restrictions against integrated schools did not prevail, and this 
even in the case of Catholic Negroes. It is embarrassing to note that, 
up to the present, some of our institutions have effected what seems 
to be little more than token integration of the Negro. (19) 

You American Jesuits, Father Arrupe says, have a distin- 
guished record of ministry to minorities. He specifically lists the 
American Indian, the Irish, the Italian, the German, and the Slav 
immigrants of the nineteenth and early twentieth century. (Asians 
are conspicuously missing.) But the American Negro is a notable 
exception. "Unfortunately our apostolate to the Negro in the United 



*Parenthetical references correspond to paragraphs in Father Arrupe's "Letter 
on the Interracial Apostolate to the Fathers, Scholastics, and Brothers of the American 
Assistance" {Woodstock Letters 97, no. 3 [Summer 1968]: 291-302). The letter may also 
be found in Justice with Faith Today: Selected Letters and Addresses, ed. Jerome Aixala, 
S.J. (Gujarat Sahitya Prakash; reissued in 1980 by the Institute of Jesuit Sources, St. 
Louis), 13-27. It was originally distributed in booklet form to communities. 



4 ^ James S. Torrens, S.J. 



States has depended chiefly upon individual initiative and very little 
upon a corporate effort of the Society/' The question of why Jesuit 
response has been so poor engages him in some pointed speculation. 
Then he changes the tone to credit initiatives currently underway. "I 
am happy to observe among us a quickening pace of apostolic 
concern/' Arrupe says. He articulates some of these changes, but still 
has to conclude, "It remains true that the Society of Jesus has not 
committed its manpower and other resources ... in any degree 
commensurate with the need/' 

Lest he leave this letter generic and theoretical, Father Arrupe 

concludes with a substantial list of policies to be instituted in all 

sectors of formation and apostolate. He spells out specific steps to be 

taken and the timetables for them. In November of 1967, as I was 

reading through these policies, in the final stages of my dissertation 

on the literary criticism of T. S. Eliot, the following sentence leaped 

out at me: "Serious consideration should be given to the feasibility of 

permitting Jesuits to teach on the 

____ _ ^^^_^^^^^^^^_ faculties of Negro colleges and of 

inner-city high schools" (27, e). 
Father Connolly, as my _ t , „ _._ 

r > > 1 . I had to say to myself: Who 

former mnwrate rector, was .. , , * i TAT1 

ii * . * -is.- more available than me? Why not 

well versed in my frailties , t X -C 

, , t r j a post-doctoral year at a Negro 

and deeply worried, as were „ ~ A , . . . . ., 

„ . r v . ' 1 college? My previous contact with 

all major superiors by the African-Americans had been edgy 

drift of priests and sisters and minimal/ the only except i on 

from their vocation in that being My[n Henry/ a dose Mend 

unstable time. an( j kj n d re cl spirit among the doc- 

_^ _ l-l ^__ toral students at the University of 

Michigan. But the late sixties, with 
the Vietnam War underway, had brewed a tremendous activism on 
the Ann Arbor campus and among the campus ministers I had come 
to know. And social change was as crucial at home as it was abroad. 
No one in those days could be unaware of Dr. Martin Luther King 
Jr. and the poignant and heroic and sometimes tragic episodes 
unfolding in the struggle for civil rights. 

The University of Michigan had a program of faculty and 
student exchange with Tuskegee Institute and of assistance in 
academic areas. When I inquired about it, the program administrator 
promptly put me in touch with a Tuskegee professor who was then 
on campus. This got me a flight down to visit the campus, where I 



Tuskegee Years ^ 5 

promptly received an offer to teach in their English Department. 
Exciting but scary. I had to write for permission to my Jesuit provin- 
cial in California, John F. X. Connolly, who in his turn had to submit 
my request to his consultors. 

As I read my four-page request now, I find it pretty eloquent 
and cogent. Father Connolly and all of his consultors did not. The 
provincial wrote: "The University of Santa Clara has been planning 
on your joining the faculty and opportunities have been passed up 
for acquiring capable professors/' He added one more consideration 
that loomed large for American provincials, because many young 
Jesuits were attracted to teaching at secular campuses. (This would 
include Fathers Jim Devereux, Bill Neenan, and Bob Barth, who 
distinguished themselves at the Universities of North Carolina, 
Michigan, and Missouri.) "I can see untold problems if permission is 
given to certain individuals to work in this apostolate without any 
overall plan." 

Given the steps I had already taken at Tuskegee, the response 
from my province left me in a fix. Swallowing hard, I wrote to 
Father Small in Rome, asking Father Arrupe, in substance, if he had 
really meant what he said. Father General replied on January 16 
with the encouraging warmth for which he was known. "It was with 
great pleasure and satisfaction that I read your letter of January 3." 
He struck a note of appreciation for the Society's "excellent work for 
souls in America," but then added this: 

I am also convinced that our vocation to undertake the harder 
ministries which others are unable to perform, requires that we 
concentrate our efforts with heightened intensity upon the apostolate 
of the Negro and the disadvantaged. It seems that as Jesuits we are 
eminently equipped to make our unique contribution by laboring as 
educators to bring the poor closer to the love of Christ. 

Father General assured me that he would ask the provincial to 
notify me "if he sees the possibility of allowing you to work at 
Tuskegee." He reminded me, however, that "there are perhaps 
complications . . . about which I know nothing." Father Connolly, as 
my former juniorate rector, was well versed in my frailties and 
deeply worried, as were all major superiors, by the drift of priests 
and sisters from their vocation in that unstable time. I wrote to him 
again. I waited. I phoned him nervously one Saturday morning. The 
previous day, he told me, his consultors had considered my request 



6 ^ James S. Torrens, S.J. 



again and this time they split their vote, leaving it to Father Connol- 
ly. That morning on the phone, I am sure he had to take a very big 
gulp before adding, "I decide you can go." 

What follows is my journal of those unforgettable days and 
months. A journal abounds in particulars. This one will have a lot 
about the learning environment at Tuskegee Institute, the people, 
the social milieu, the religious climate and my day-to-day reactions. 
Readers will find that some of the terminology for African-Americans 
dates unavoidably to an earlier time. 



II. The Journal 

September 9. My teaching days at Tuskegee begin, remarkably 
enough, on the feast of St. Peter Claver, who spent almost forty 
years devoted to the Africans who were arriving in the slave ships at 
Cartagena, Colombia, more dead than alive. In one sense he calls to 
mind all that was most condescending — those old-time mission 
campaigns to save the souls of the blacks (as for their bodies, well, 
that could hardly be helped). His story unfolded at a time and place 

when colonialism was at its worst, 
^ ^^^_^^_ yet his instincts were right. His 

horror at the cruelties of the slave 
A group of people in a place trade was total; his determination 

like this, white outsiders, can t0 bring what alleviation he could 
so easily lapse into habits of was lifelong. The selflessness of his 
catty small-talk as to make charity was the one important 

their daily existence thing. 

purgatorial or worse. I have Peter claver>s colonial world 

lived close to this sort of is a far cry from the student mili . 

negativism very often in the tancy that came st0 rming to birth 

Jesuits and been dispirited by it. earlier this year right here in Tus- 
wmammmm _._ mm _ mm _^ ^_^_ kegee. Tonight Tom Doyle and his 

wife Mary Lou, sitting by the light 
of two chunky candles in a house they have just rented, traced in 
detail the episodes of last spring — the egg-throwing at government 
spokesmen for the Vietnam War, the mass meetings with President 
Luther Foster, the imprisonment of the regents in Dorothy Hall 
guest house and the arrival of the National Guard to liberate them, 
the incendiary threat, the subsequent closing of school, the trials, the 



Tuskegee Years <& 7 

handful of dismissals — in short all the mixture of outrage and stri- 
dency and administrative groping that characterizes the tumultuous 
college scene. 

[The Doyles had come to Tuskegee to teach English with their MAs 
from Ann Arbor. They were in the flow of the white graduate students who 
made their way in impressive numbers to the traditional black colleges in 
that era, with genuinely high ideals, but sometimes also with an eye to what 
might satisfy their draft boards in the heat of conscription for Vietnam. The 
Doyles later settled in San Francisco, my home town, where Tom has taught 
ever since at City College, so we have been able to keep up our friendship.] 

When Tom had finished his account, I suddenly realized that 
all the ceremonies of this past day which seemed so long — the 
introduction of innumerable new 
faculty, the debate about ROTC 

credits in the Humanities Division, At the time it was difficult 

the long, cautious address of Dr. for me to understand the 

Foster — were shot through with intensity of concern and 

drama for anyone who had feeling expressed by some 

known the turmoil of spring. of those present, but human 

Drink! I feel as if I have emotions are not 

done nothing in my twenty-four without their reason. 

hours here but drink ice water. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
There is nothing that looks so 

good — not beer, not fruit juice — as a jar of cool water in the Frigid- 
aire, unless, of course, it be this same water with scotch and ice 
cubes added! 

"Southern exposure/' If only I can remain alert and sympa- 
thetic. A group of people in a place like this, white outsiders, can so 
easily lapse into habits of catty small-talk as to make their daily 
existence purgatorial or worse. I have lived close to this sort of 
negativism very often in the Jesuits and been dispirited by it. Hope I 
have learned my lesson! The exposure could well be of my own 
nakedness, and naked males have always struck me as rather ludi- 
crous, hardly the Apollos of the artist. Well, we've all come naked 
from God, and it does not hurt to have the bare ribs of one's finitude 
made public, so prepare your soul! 

September 11. Boy, what a day! I have spent it all counseling fresh- 
men about their class schedules. After only three days on campus! 



8 ^ James S. Torrens, S.J. 



Reminds me of that famous painting of Brueghel's, the blind leading 
each other in a sort of chain right into the drink. I suppose the chaos 
of registration is the same everywhere, but that doesn't make it any 
less dramatic. These youngsters have to take two hours of PE, a non- 
credit reading course, ROTC, and a weekly hour of orientation (to 
which I was wholly oblivious until almost the last of my counselees), 
and this on top of twelve hours of solids. 

September 12. More of the same. A half dozen of my freshman 
counselees kept coming back, as much as three or four times, to 
modify their plans, substitute for courses closed out, correct omis- 
sions or ignorance of my own, and in general compound the chaos 
of registration. A more unpromising way to begin college I can 
hardly imagine. 

September 18. Last Friday evening after Mass at St. Joseph's, the 
local Catholic church, the sisters of the parish school [Dominican 
Sisters with their motherhouse in Sinsinawa, Wisconsin] invited me out 
for a picnic with Stanley Maxwell and Milton Davis, two students at 
the Institute, plus Phil Loretan, who teaches engineering, and two 
young couples with their children, Ray and Trudy Barreras (Ray 
teaches biology at the Institute) and a younger couple with their first 
baby, Mac and Regina Woolard. [This group became the nucleus of my 
Catholic connections at Tuskegee. At the moment I write this in 2005, one 
of those sisters, Geraldine OMeara, O.P., is back as principal of the school 
and Stanley Maxwell is deacon and administrator of the parish.] 

On Sunday evening Regina and Mac Woolard invited us to 
their apartment for a prayer meeting. After the recent hectic weeks, I 
was in need of some such praying but also uncertain of what was in 
store. It turned out to be very simple and very moving. It is indeed 
awesome to glimpse the inner life of people devoted to God — to 
know their hopes, ideals, problems, anxieties, and even shortcom- 
ings. At the time it was difficult for me to understand the intensity 
of concern and feeling expressed by some of those present, but 
human emotions are not without their reason. 

I discovered a deep source of unrest in the parish next day, 
when I myself was not allowed to say evening Mass in St. Joseph's 
Church. The reason given was that the Mobile chancery seems to 
have no record of my priestly faculties. The real reason seems to be 



Tuskegee Years <& 9 



the threat I pose to the pastor. What an awkward situation. How am 
I to function in this place, peacefully and unobtrusively, as a priest? 
How can I preach effectively about the dilemmas of the Christian, 
black or white, in A.D. 1968? How can I live my own religious iden- 
tity? But those are small questions over and against the pathos of 
this man, who has devoted his life to serving Christ among the 
blacks, being put on the defensive by my brief appearance on the 
scene and my supposed expertise, which is literary not pastoral, and 
a very relative thing at that. 

[Father Arthur Flynn, S.S.J., the pastor, was a member of the Joseph- 
ites, a religious order devoted to African- Americans. They stood out in the 
South for their pastoral ministry to these beleaguered Catholics. In the case 
of this Bostonian, isolation had bred a severe defensiveness. It did not help 
that the media were making hay that year of a splinter phenomenon among 
Catholics known as the "Underground Church." (See Michael Novak, "The 
Underground Church," in the "Saturday Evening Post," December 28, 
1 968.) I was the Underground Church at his door!] 

September 18. I feel civilized again. This afternoon I found a couple 
of bottles of wine at the liquor store — the one authorized Alabama 
state liquor store in town. I felt like I was withdrawing money from 
a bank as I went through the various formalities of purchase. Any- 
way, I had Italian Swiss Chianti 
with dinner, and it made every- — — — — — — — 

thing (baked potato, frozen broc- Because I am "living as a 

coli and pork chops) taste 200% layman/' the Mobile 

chancery office has canceled 
It is a little hard getting din- my permission to operate as 

ner music on the radio. I can pick a priest in the diocese. 

up only one weak FM station, and 
the AM stations are appalling: ei- 
ther gospel music of the saccha- 
rine and jingly sort ("There is Someone to care about you") or, more 
often, the pounding of electric guitars and the yowling of mouths 
about six inches too close to the mike. TV is even more of the same. 
If you don't like Johnny Carson, you're stuck. And even if you do. 

September 20. Today in the Atlanta Constitution (bless them, they 
kept it on page 6) we read of Governor Lester Maddox assuring a 



10 <f James S. Torrens, S.J. 



Baptist Brotherhood Dinner that "America needs a genuine Holy 
Ghost revival" and that people do not have to be called 'old-fash- 
ioned' when they turn a deaf ear to Socialists, Marxists, and bums 
who are tearing at the very soul of America." [Maddox, owner of a 
fried-chicken outlet, opposed the Civil Rights act and stood off any blacks 
trying to enter his restaurant with a coterie of men carrying ax handles. The 
ax handle became his official logo.] 

So much for the State. The Church touches me more nearly. I 
woke up this morning reduced, as it were, to the lay state. Because I 
am "living as a layman," the Mobile chancery office has canceled my 
permission to operate as a priest in the diocese. Father Lipscomb, the 
chancellor (Most Rev. Oscar Lipscomb, now archbishop of Mobile), says he 

took it up with Archbishop Too- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ian, who allows me to say Mass 

privately but not in public. "Had it 
"Mardi Gras is the least of been clear to us from the onset 
the Negro's troubles but is that you would not have been 
nevertheless a neat instance wearing clerical dress, such facul- 
of his finding himself ties for public ministry would not 
invisible, present yet have been granted." 
unaccounted for. For there is \ have committed myself to 
hardly a place for him in the non-clerical wear at the Institute. 
entire publicly sponsored To suddenly alter the pattern will 
'official celebration certainly be awkward. I wish I 
of Mardi Gras." could be clear in my own mind 
whether non-clerical wear is all 

that important here on cam- 
pus — whether, in other words, I am brewing a tempest in a teapot. 
Father Howard Douville, chaplain of the Veterans Hospital, came 
over in the role of fellow-Jesuit and peacemaker to talk turkey. Why 
be stubborn about so minor an issue? he asked. Ray Barreras ap- 
peared, by coincidence, at the very same time and agreed. 

I suppose I have no alternative but to get back into black. It 
won't be comfortable. A white man on campus stands out like a sore 
thumb, as it is. After my brush last spring with the Negro militant 
from San Jose who told me just what he thought of the Church, I 
will be doubly uneasy, as if I were wearing ecclesiastical purple. 
People here assure me I am making a mountain out of a molehill. 
Hope so. 



Tuskegee Years ^ 11 



As I sat in my apartment at dinner this evening, guess what 
came on the radio: "I left my heart in San Francisco/' And how! 

September 27. Father Flynn got word to me last evening that he 
hoped to see me at morning Mass, which I was happy enough to 
hear. He then invited me to concelebrate with him and even, as I 
gathered once we went out on the altar, to lead the concelebration. 
How much more the kiss of peace meant under these conditions. 
Afterwards he invited me to the rectory for fruit juice and coffee. 
Hopefully this is a step back to my acceptability around the parish, a 
start in reducing the mountain to molehill size. 

September 29. I was never much struck by Ralph Ellison's metaphor 
for the Negro, as in the title of his distinguished novel, The Invisible 
Man. It seemed to me more cerebral than real, farfetched, melodra- 
matic, a steal from Dostoevski. Well, that probably shows how little I 
really know about the black experience. An article and a story in this 
month's Harper's opened my eyelids a centimeter. Walker Percy, in 
"New Orleans Mon Amour/' discusses the Negro and Mardi Gras. 
"Mardi Gras is the least of the Negro's troubles but is nevertheless a 
neat instance of his finding himself invisible, present yet unac- 
counted for. For there is hardly a place for him in the entire publicly 
sponsored 'official' celebration of Mardi Gras/' 

September 30. What makes Mrs. Ada Peters such a good teacher in 
everyone's estimation? This morning at coffee she got talking about 
the way she has students present various short stories in class, in 
panels of four or five. That way the discovery is theirs (although she 
keeps a lot of questions and observations in reserve). The trouble 
with so many college teachers (some in the English Department at 
Michigan) is that they are too fond of the sound of their own voice. 

[Ada Peters was an elegant, brisk schoolmarm, African- American, 
from Maine. During the student uprising in the spring, I was told, when 
they blocked access to the classroom building, she arrived to teach. "You 
can't go in there, Miz Peters," one of the militants told her, "III lay right 
down here in front of the door." "Lie!" she corrected him indignantly, and 
walked in. We heard that the voter registration board in Tuskegee had 
refused to register her, that is, had given her a failing mark on the literacy 



12 <$> James S. Torrens, S.J. 



test, when she balked at the sloppy version of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence they handed her to copy, as they did to all unsuspecting black appli- 
cants. She was more literate than anyone there.] 

October 3. Not only do I have twelve hours to teach (three prepara- 
tions, four courses), like everyone else; I have to wind up with all of 
them on Tuesday and Thursday. If only I can build up enough 
stamina to stay on top of such a schedule. I have not as yet; the old 
asthma is giving me trouble. 

Correction of prose, I can see, is really going to be the chal- 
lenge. We just had a pride of linguists in here to discuss the teach- 
ing of English to those who grow up with a dialect. They refer to 
Negro speech as a second language at times, which overstates the 
case, I think. Undeniably, however, there are quite different struc- 
tural patterns in the daily speech of many of these youngsters, 
which makes it difficult for them to switch over into standard Eng- 
lish. After the linguistic conference, I am more convinced than ever 
that the widening of horizons and the ability of students to deal 
with more subtle concepts demands that they be at least at ease with 
the type of prose which, at its best, we find in Walter Lippmann, 
Churchill, the essays of Baldwin. 

A large part of the difficulty with student writing, and not just 
here at Tuskegee, lies in a certain carelessness about logical continu- 
ity, not just in an essay but within the body of a single sentence. 
Expectations are set up as the sentence moves along and then are 
frustrated by a sudden change of subject, haphazard placing of 
clauses, imprecise connectives, etc. A teacher of comp is there to help 
the student get down on paper, a little more effectively, just what he 
or she wants to say. 

October 9. Yesterday evening I finally got my Comparative Lit 
course off the ground, with a vengeance. The students were reading 
their papers about Dido and Aeneas when a full-scale fight broke 
out between two of them about the motive for Dido's suicide, Miss 
Brown claiming that it was shame over her guilt and Miss Williams 
shouting just as loud that it was hurt pride. The rest of the class 
pitched in. No hair was pulled, no friendships broken, and everyone 
seemed to enjoy the broil. I veered from one persuasion to the other 
as lines from Virgil were quoted back and forth. 



Tuskegee Years <& 13 



Phil Loretan, recovering from an eye operation last night at 
the hospital, told me that some dogs made an awful racket outside 
his window during the night. On the way out I saw one of them, a 
police dog with legs as thick as my arm. A Negro farmer, with a 
young daughter holding to his hand, told me that a pack of such 
animals had come rampaging around his home. He was so con- 
cerned for his young children that he took out a 22 rifle and shot 
nine of them. The county gave him a bounty, for the beasts had 
been killing young calves and other farm animals. Sounds like a Jack 
London story, only this is hardly Alaska. 



October 13. A sign on the highway between Montgomery and 
Birmingham says " Alabaster/ 7 What a bright shiny name for a town, 
but how suggestive of lily-white. When I drove through there 
yesterday, sure enough, the youth of town were out at the stoplights 
passing their straw hats — banded in red, white, and blue — for 
Governor George Wallace, that champion of segregation yesterday, 
today, and forever. The first time I saw this curious folkway was a 
month ago in Birmingham, where the city police swarmed the 
intersection to get funds for some medical charity. 

Friday evening was the first of a series of Human Relations 

workshops at St. Jude's High School auditorium in Montgomery. 

Bishop Vath [Joseph Vath, auxiliary 

bishop of Mobile and soon to be the — ■— — — — — ■— _ 

first bishop of Birmingham] in his m {g suMm gmse of fhe 

address of greeting, dwelt on The , , . • •+ • x»_ 

,.,,,„. & , & , . , human electricity in the 

Little Prince as a lesson in the right . . ^ , . 

, , t T -i T i j wires at Tuskegee convinces 

human values. Happily I had a , . . d . .. . -, . , 

j u ^ ^ ij ■ i_ me how important it is that 1 

good chat with the bishop as a , , . . . . , 

7. . j jj. r keep teaching in civvies, and 

step towards getting some warmer r d , _ ' . 

welcome from the archdiocese. not wave a papal flag in 

The people from Tuskegee were, addition to a white one. 

for the most part, unhappy that _^ ^_— — 
the meeting did not get anywhere, 

accomplish any specific goal. For my own part, I was fascinated just 
to hear people groping nervously for a more Christian attitude or 
trying to find grounds for hope at a paranoid juncture of American 
life. 



14 <$> James S. Torrens, S.J. 



I spent yesterday and today with Dave Huisman [we had been 
fellow doctoral students at Michigan] and his wife, Lois, at Miles College 
in Birmingham. It was the first real break and rest I have gotten in 
six weeks. On Sunday I went to a small Catholic parish nearby, a 
black parish where the liturgy was very much alive but where the 
pastor, an old missionary from China, rather browbeat the congrega- 
tion for noise in church (I didn't hear a peep myself) and also scold- 
ed the altar boys who had not shown up. What a dismal approach. I 
specially remarked the statue of the Blessed Mother in the midst of 
this throng — alabaster white, of course, right from Barclay Street. 

Father Flynn recalls that in Birmingham he himself was set 
upon by police dogs and his congregation was clouted around by 
the representatives of law and order. This is what a supremacy 
feeling does to a man; it makes a bully out of him. 

October 17. It has been intimated to me that the faculty of Tuskegee 
deeply resents the English Department, which has such an increas- 
ingly high proportion of whites. 
They also resent the campaign, 
/ had spent days preparing a real or imagined, against Negro 
lecture on the Dark Ages, dialect [what became known as Black 

from the decline of Rome to English and later as Ebonics] in favor 

the early Middle Ages. It was of Standard English. And here I 
a disaster, a few flickers of have gone and taken the initiative 

interest but eyes mostly myself to prepare a paper on the 

averted. The heart (and subject, which Dr. Youra Quails, 

stomach) went out of me. the chairperson, wants me to pres- 

ent at the next faculty meeting. 
^-^^^^^^— ^— ^^— ^— The contention of the paper is that 

most of the serious writing prob- 
lems the students have are problems of logic — the logic of gram- 
mar — not of dialect. Talk about stepping into a hornet's nest! 

This sudden sense of the human electricity in the wires at 
Tuskegee convinces me how important it is that I keep teaching in 
civvies, and not wave a papal flag in addition to a white one. It also 
makes me mindful of two wise observations. One is from John 
Keats, in a letter to Sarah Jeffrey (June 9, 1819): "To be thrown 
among people who care not for you, with whom you have no 
sympathies, forces the Mind upon its own resources, and leaves it 



Tuskegee Years <& 15 



free to make its speculations of the differences of human character 
and to class them with the calmness of a Botanist." Keats had strong 
and deep sympathies for many people, but perhaps the general 
tenor of his passage holds true in any circumstance where one meets 
with hostility, overt or latent. It has certainly, I am sure, been the 
experience of most blacks who have come to maturity in white 
America. 

The other observation is from Faulkner at his most humane, in 
'The Bear." A small hunting dog, the fice, plucks up its courage and 
moves in for an attack on Old Ben, that symbol of the wild and 
impervious wilderness. She got a light pat, a "tattered ear and raked 
shoulder ... for her temerity." Sam Fathers, the Indian woodman, 
remarks: "Just like folks. Put off as long as she could having to be 
brave, knowing all the time that 

sooner or later she would have to ^^^^^^^^— ^^^^^^^— 
be brave once so she could keep It takes a ht f humility to 

on calling herself a dog, and learn from a dominating 

knowing beforehand what was ^ and humiUty is a 

going to happen when she done it." ^rtue that the Negro is going 

I must in all honesty add to leave in abeyance 

the episodes which can and for a while. 

should make this whole year 

worthwhile, the fact that a few ^^^^^^^^™"^^^^^^^ — " 
older students have remarked to 

me in passing that this is the first time they have been called upon 
in class to come up with their own appraisals of what they are 
reading. Sounds hard to believe. 

October 20. All of Friday we had to endure the soaking fringes of 
hurricane Gladys. Four of us went to Columbus, Georgia, to see 
Tuskegee beat Morehouse, 14 to 12, with Sylvester Robinson, my 
Comp Lit student, at quarterback. Through most of the game we sat 
in a dismal, dripping rain, though I must say it was rather fun. 

On Saturday I drove through the countryside to Auburn 
University, about a half hour's ride from Tuskegee. I had once 
envisioned Alabama as one continuous cotton field, like parts of 
Fresno County, California. But the cotton fields appear only here 
and there, as if hard won from the wilds and precariously held. It is 
a rolling land of pineywoods, like the man said. 



16 ^ James S. Torrens, S.J. 



October 25. Tom Doyle and I have been talking about the drama of 
teaching. Yesterday was it. I had carefully prepared a number of 
topics and problems of interpretation concerning The Scarlet Letter. 
As the discussion got rolling in my American Lit class, many hands 
went up, which I had not seen before, and these people had intelli- 
gent things to say. Did Hester really repent of her sin? Was it indeed 
a sin? Did Hawthorne consider it such? What about the malevolent 
Black Man? Is there psychological realness to Pearl? My next section 
of the same course, with some excellent students, went much slower 
and was more ill-defined. For my evening class I had spent days 
preparing a lecture on the Dark Ages, from the decline of Rome to 
the early Middle Ages. It was a disaster, a few flickers of interest but 
eyes mostly averted. The heart (and stomach) went out of me. 



October 27. Julian Bond spoke at Logan Hall to a large crowd this 
evening. [Julian Bond, an organizer of the Student Non-Violent Coordinat- 
ing Committee while a student at Morehouse College, Atlanta, had been 
elected in his twenties to the state legislature in Georgia and sat there for 
twenty years. He is currently the national chair of NAACP.] His speech 
was very low-keyed, but quick and sharp. There is little of the black 
fire-eater about him, either in physical appearance (he is light, with 
wavy hair), in dress (he wore a double-breasted suit!), in manner of 
speech (fluent Adlai Stevenson English). Someone from the assembly 
got up to insinuate he was becoming an Uncle Tom. But there is no 
doubt about who he is, what he stands for, with whom his lot is 
cast, and what a probing intelligence is here at work and what 
personal courage. 



October 29. Today was the best day yet of class. My large American 
Lit section had a spirited debate over two student papers arguing 
that Hawthorne should have had The Scarlet Letter end happily. 
Many in the class agreed. Then gradually others began to point out 
why he ended it as happily as the situation would bear. My after- 
noon class presented their highly personal reflections on "Upon First 
Looking into Keats." It was a good window into their enthusiasms 
and distastes. In the evening class we read Everyman (in a wretched 
translation); everyone took parts and seemed to relish the dramatic 
reading. 



Tuskegee Years <& 17 



November 3. I drove down among the endless pines to be with the 
Jesuits at Spring Hill College, Mobile. Dogwood everywhere is 
turning a fierce red. Outside Montgomery I was lucky enough to 
pick up some hitchhiking Auburn freshmen, who guided me to and 
through Mobile, were good company, and shared the driving. We 
arranged a return trip two days later. Perhaps I was even able to 
convince them that Tuskegee really exists. Our school is clearly a 
world outside their ken. 



November 6. How will I ever get used to the phrase "President 
Nixon"? 



November 10. One byproduct of the generations of white supremacy 
is a self-assurance among those with the most expertise. Those who 
have the most innovative ideas to contribute to the growth of a 
place like Tuskegee seem to me almost to create viruses within their 
own proposals. I sat in as a third 

party recently while a young ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
white administrator from Ann Ar- 
bor, who has taught here at Tus- "Blackness, we are told, 
kegee and works hard at a dis- symbolizes evil, sin, the 
tance for its development, pro- irrational, the devil/' If you 
ceeded to tell the chairman, Dr. are black, what do you 
Quails, in a very positive way, make of it? 
what is wrong with the freshman 
English program: All the exercises 

are based entirely too much on the imitation of printed paradigms. 
He was very strong on the correction of the students' writing by 
their own peers — team learning, he calls it. I think he has no idea 
how strong he came on. It takes a lot of humility to learn from a 
dominating person, and humility is a virtue that the Negro is going 
to leave in abeyance for a while. 

Milton Davis is pledging a fraternity. Walter Singletary too. 
They do it with an earnestness truly startling, for each of them is at 
a far remove from college playboy. The initiation routine cuts into 
study time and psychic energy something fierce, yet they consider 
the goal well worth the endurance it demands. What goal? No 
doubt the sense of brotherhood, the solidarity of the group, with its 
common life and its shared interests. The yearning for fraternity or 



18 <r James S. Torrens, S.J. 

sorority, the koinonia (in-common-holding) of the early Christians, 
the ekklesia as a group "called together" — I think I will preach about 
this on Sunday, now that the bishop has restored my faculties. 

The young white teachers, here only since September, are 
already talking of where they will teach next year. Did somebody 
promise them a rose garden? 

November 13. In the Campus Digest, the student newspaper, so 
many outraged minds clamor about blackness and beauty. It is as if, 
in a Catholic student paper, the cry were constantly going up, "It is 
good to be a Catholic; it IS." There is not yet the peacefulness of 
acceptance; at least there is not yet enough careful probing, imagina- 
tive variety, pride of skillful expression. 

My class has just finished discussing The Scarlet Letter, and 
with gusto. Hawthorne thrives on the allegorical conflict between 
darkness and light. The Prince of Darkness appears in this novel as 
The Black Man, the leader of forbidden revels in the forest, that 
native place of our unfettered instincts, at midnight. One of my 
students, writing with great insight about the symbolic polarities in 
the novel, begins this way: "Blackness, we are told, symbolizes evil, 
sin, the irrational, the devil." If you are black, what do you make of 
it? We know what the white-sheeted Klan made of it in their des- 
perate defensiveness. Hawthorne uses his color symbolism ambigu- 
ously. People are not necessarily what they appear on the surface. 
The Puritan hypocrisies bear a seed of death, and the lawless forest 
hides a promise of vigorous life. What a man is comes from inside 
himself. 



November 22. So what if smog and airplane exhaust clogs even the 
Santa Clara Valley [in California, once called The Valley of Hearts De- 
light, for all its orchards.] Thank God it has not yet gotten here; that is 
some compensation for the rural South. Nightimes, very late, I often 
sit out on my doorstep to say my rosary and view the panoply of 
stars. I suppose I do more star-gazing than praying, so sharply do 
they sparkle — but admiration is not an unworthy form of prayer. St. 
Ignatius used to sit out on the roof for the same purpose in Renais- 
sance Rome. 



Tuskegee Years -b 19 



November 23. Last night two carloads of us went down again to 
Montgomery for a Human Relations session. The topic of the key- 
note speaker was 'The White Man's Problem," and the discussion 
really opened up afterwards, when we looked around to find the 
gathering composed of two 

groups, white clergy and sisters, ^^^^^^^^_^^^^^^^^^ 
mostly from out of state, plus rep- 
resentative blacks from the com- Now I can see why in 
munity. Where were the whites of American colleges as a whole 
Montgomery? The sisters had tried the fraternity system has 
desperately to get the loan of facil- been so loudly charged with 
ities from the white churches of working at cross-purposes to 
Montgomery for these mixed gath- educational goals and the 
erings, with no result but an ice- maturing process. 
cold shoulder. What a commen- 
tary on the bankruptcy — or let us 

say, the horrendous deficit — of the churches and the fact that reli- 
gious faith has not been anywhere nearly strong enough to affect 
the lifestyle of unregenerate man, to modify his habits of inhumanity 
to his neighbor. This phenomenon poses the most serious enigma to 
be faced by the person of faith. 

November 24. Here I sit correcting essay questions on Walt Whit- 
man. One of the questions concerns his poem "Crossing Brooklyn 
Ferry/' He explores the continuity between himself and all the 
generations of people who will float across these waters at sunset 
time, like himself, in times to come. The link he has made strikes me 
now as uncanny. [In 1992, on the centenary day of Whitman's death, I 
walked the Brooklyn Bridge, reading this poem.] 

My exam has this question about the Song of Myself. "Is Whit- 
man hopelessly egotistical and narcissistic?" What a door I opened! 
My feeble voice is being drowned out by a thundering chorus of 
boos. One student's response is typical: "He doesn't know how to be 
modest." However, there is a handful of respondents who at least 
were able to talk about what Walt is trying to do in making himself 
"the American common man as lyric hero." 

November 25. Today I had my first haircut in a black barbershop, at 
the Vets' Hospital [made famous in Ellison's novel, The Invisible Man.] 



20 <$> James S. Torrens, S.J. 



Big deal! But he did cut a wide, bare swath above and behind the 
ears. While I was there another customer came in, one quite familiar 
with the barbers, and after a little banter he suddenly went off on an 
incredibly frank account of his sexual adventures, all definitely 
hetero, with my own barber sort of chuckling and cutting in now 
and then. There were a few refinements which I don't seem to 
remember reading of in our moral theology books. Well, that's what 
you get when out of the collar, an idea of what goes on where! 

November 26. I just went out to the VA for confession to Father 
Douville. It is largely a mental hospital, and this morning, Sunday, 
the grounds were full of patients, wandering or sitting, but not a 
sound. The silence is eerie, a palpable living space for these un- 
happy people who have locked themselves into their own private 
worlds or been forced into it by others. 

December 6. I have my craw full of fraternities at Tuskegee. One of 

my most promising male students, after a good start, has been 

floundering along for two months, rarely appearing in class and 

keeping up with assignments only by reason of the late papers I 

have allowed him. He was my only student among fifty to miss the 

midterm, because he overslept. 

—————— — When I put to him the question 

rr i j *ui i why all his grades have taken a 

To lead a group of black J _ . , ? r 

. j . . ,. , , nose dive, his answer was frank: 

students in reading a book „„ . „ ' T , 

, xl , j ,j_ j_i • Fatigue. Now I can see why in 

about themselves, doesn t this A . „ , , '« 

.,,,,. . „ American colleges as a whole the 

violate their privacy? £ r* u u 

r v fraternity system has been so 

-__—__-_____ loudly charged with working at 

cross-purposes to educational 

goals and the maturing process. And as to rites that are humanly 

debasing, you would think that the Negro has had quite enough of 

that. We don't know how to test self-discipline without turning the 

whole procedure into a sort of Iroquois guantlet. 

Thoreau has a sentence in Walden which may go a long way to 
explain the wariness of Negro students towards their white teachers: 
"If I knew for a certainty that a man ['The Man"\] was coming to my 
house with the conscious design of doing me good, I should run for 
my life." 



Tuskegee Years -0- 21 



December 9. All-Institute Conference today, and I got talking to Mr. 
Ed Epps of the Behavioral Research Center. I was voicing my gripe 
about Tuskegee fraternities. Without denying the extremes to which 
they go, he defended them as a rallying place for imaginative and 
serious students, not bedeviled by the typical anti-intellectualism of 
the white American fraternities. It struck me then that three of the 
students I know who have just gone through this mill are active in 
musical performances on campus, and there are some other indica- 
tions of their earnestness. This would therefore seem to be one of 
those complex local phenomena which are so deceiving or difficult 
for the outsider to judge. 



December 15. Logan Hall was packed tonight for the Christmas 
concert of the Institute Choir. They did a dozen or so hymns and 
spirituals (a few with audience participation) and, as the main 
course, The Messiah. The soloists were from the Music School at the 
University of Michigan, except for the soprano, Bessie Hunter, one 
of my Comp Lit students, who was superb. I was really proud of 
her. She has been having considerable trouble with my course, but a 
teacher has to rejoice at such a success. 

Walking home after the concert, with the temperature down 
close to freezing, I passed a student huddled in a coat, rubbing his 
hands desperately and telling the world: "The hawk is on my back" 
[The cold has its talons in me]. 



January 10, 1969. Yesterday, Thursday, was my most satisfactory day 
in the classroom. The reading materials seemed to click with the 
students, and we had some spirited presentations and discus- 
sions — of poems by Emily Dickinson (which caught on surprisingly 
well), of Michel de Montaigne ("Of the Inconsistency of Our Ac- 
tions" — has he given up on the possible integrity and order in a 
man's life?), and of some startling pieces by W. H. Auden ("Victor," 
"Miss Gee," "The Managers"). 

Fortune's fickle wheel was not going to keep me on the 
height. This morning, at 6:30, the newsboy was rapping at the door 
to alert me that my car, during the night, had rolled down back- 
wards across the slope of the parking lot into the back of Dr. Sid- 
dique's car, bashing his right rear fender and taking off a streak of 



22 <fr James S. Torrens, S.J. 



paint. The professor was not at all amused. I had left the emergency 
off. Did I really park the car out of gear?! 

February 6. Richard Wright's autobiography Black Boy is one of those 
rare books that turned everything upside down for me. Page after 
page I would be caught up short, saying to myself in one way or the 
other, "My God!" Now I am about to teach his story, "The Man Who 
Lived Underground," and I wonder, have I any right to? To lead a 
group of black students in reading a book about themselves, doesn't 
this violate their privacy? 

February 13. Sam Allen lectured this evening on Richard Wright in 
Paris and Africa, after World War II. He opened up one or two 
fascinating vistas. The first has to do with Wright's lack of sympathy 
with the African aesthetic and religious outlook. He who wrote so 
scathingly of his own Southern-church experiences thought that 
religion was only superstition. And he considered that all the em- 
phasis on hand-crafted artifacts as a magical way of controlling 
nature could only impede the entry of Africa into a world of precise 
industrial techniques. Africa was still so highly communitarian and 
the tribe regarded as such a unified living organism, how could it 
ever accept analytic objectivity and specialization? Wright felt that 
Leopold Senghor and the other proponents of Nigritude as an 
aesthetic had become too cerebrally French. In a conference in Paris 
there were apparently some heated exchanges. 

[Samuel Allen, a leading African-American poet and a graduate of 
Harvard Law School, who for years worked with the U.S. Information 
Service, was the luminary of our English Department. He had traveled with 
Langston Hughes to Africa and known James Baldwin in Paris and was a 
live connection to the promising young writers of the Negro Digest. He 
taught subsequently at Boston University until retirement, and we have 
remained good friends.] 

Aubrey LaBrie of the History Department afterwards asked 
Sam whether Wright wasn't rather cold and unsympathetic to his 
fellow Negroes and was therefore much less representative than 
someone like Chester Himes. Sam allowed that it might be so, and 
so it may. But it strikes me that Wright was fighting desperately for 
his own individuality. He admits to being driven into himself and 
put perpetually on his guard by the narrow hostility he breathed as 



Tuskegee Years <& 23 

the very air of his early life. He was not going to be cowed by 
anyone. 



February 17. Was I imagining things this morning? I thought I 
overheard a young man in the corridor say under his breath, "We 
don't need you." Tuskegee doesn't need whites leading the show — 
he is right about that. But how about auxiliaries on the team? 

I don't see what business whites have going around wearing 
Black Power emblems. Are they trying to muscle in even here? 

Dr. Ward of the Music School referred to us English teachers 
as the Foreign Language Department. He was referring wryly to the 
talk about teaching standard English to speakers of the black vernac- 
ular as being roughly analogous to teaching a foreign language to 
dialect users. He himself is quite 

an elegant practitioner of the * — — — ■ ^ "^— ^— 
[high-standard] language. [Prescrip- A u the no i y sta tues, except 

tive teaching of what we might call f 0f Martin de Forres, are 

polished English was huffed at in white-faced, so as to make 

those days, even by Webster's Third evm ^ m f ~ hok ^ {f 

International, and became more so ^ m fc mtish ^ 

with the onset of Post-modernism. I 

still consider some refinement of Ian- -^ _-_ 
guage to be pretty basic to education 

and adult communication. It does not have to mean the loss of a more 
relaxed home idiom. The average high-schooler, white or black, today may 
well find polished English to be a pretty foreign lanaguage.] 



February 18. Tom Doyle and I were talking about approaches to the 
students. I am a good deal more formal with them than he is — call 
them "Mister" or "Miss" so-and-so in class and see little of them 
outside of class. I wish I saw more of them; but I am not about to 
invite over a houseful of girls, and that's mostly what I have. Still, I 
must find some way to open the doors up a little more. One thing I 
think about a first name — you have to wait until your familiarity 
with a person reaches the stage that you naturally and spontane- 
ously fall into it. 



24 <$> James S. Torrens, S.J. 



February 19. I blessed and distributed ashes at early Mass today, to 
myself as well as the congregation. Later, before heading off to 
school, I glanced in the mirror and, guess what, a large black 
smudge on this pale face. Should I wipe it off? But then why did I 
go through the ceremony? Wear it and explain a little. Which I did. 
My student Robert Thompson from Mobile, when he found out the 
meaning of the mark, said, quite unhappily, "You mean I missed 
Mardi Gras?!" 

We must do what we can to change the climate. There is an 
atmosphere of insanity in the whole racial antagonism, not to be 
conjured away by some starry-eyed Platonist who thinks he is not 

infected. Recently a series of slides 

_^___ — — __^^_^^^^_ and recordings on African art 

were shown at the Institute, in- 
Over and over we passed that duding some very pale masks It 

prototype of country living, was explained that in Africa white 

"the sagging broken-backed is the color of the supernatural. 

cabin set in its inevitable The professor showing the slides 

treeless and grassless plot later made one comment, a re- 

and weathered to the color of minder that in Africa white is the 

an old beehive/' just like color of death. That's not what the 

Flem Snopes's place in The recording said. His remark is cor- 

Hamlet. How thickly a rect in seeing white as a proper 

Faulkner sentence reproduces color for the realm of the dead, 

what he handled and smelted but it tends to downgrade the 

and looked at and listened to whole African belief in afterlife 

all around him. aR d the spirit-world of ancestors. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ How deep our color biases 

go. St. Joseph's parish church, with 
a largely black congregation, is an example of fine insouciance. All 
the holy statues, except for Martin de Porres, are white-faced, so as 
to make even the Holy Family look as if they grew up in the British 
Isles. 



March 1. The magnolia trees are out in full panoply today. Did they 
just open up overnight? I get up fairly early for Mass in the morn- 
ing, but there is already magical bird song. And the wild ducks are 
still wheeling around above the pine woods or floating on Tuskegee 
Lake, where Tom Doyle and I watch them while jogging. [I wrote to 



Tuskegee Years -$- 25 



Doyle recently that I might be publishing this journal and he responded: "l 
hope you get those runs along the dirt road by the lake and the cotton fields. 
The sky was orange and black in the winter sunset. "] 



March 16. This weekend I drove with Ted and Claire Blatchford and 
Morris Kaplan to Oxford, Mississippi, on a pilgrimage to the home of 
Faulkner. [Kaplan was a philosophy teacher at the Institute and Ted 
Blatchford, also from Yale, an English instructor. His wife, Claire, who was 
hearing-impaired, was a teacher of the deaf and a poet.] Characteristically 
there was little enough visible of him — a long curving avenue of 
weathered cypress trees and a 
green-shuttered house just visible 

at the edge of lawns. What we They were extremely friendly 
most wanted to see was Faulkner to me as an outsider, and I 

country. I and my companions pitched into the soul food 

read to each other from The Ham- with my usual good appetite. 
let, As I Lay Dying, "The Fire and Here was another very 

the Hearth," and "The Bear" dur- appealing instance of that 

ing the long drive. worldwide phenomenon, the 

Mv version of Faulkner banquet for the dead — where 
country now includes a lot of bare the living feed to go on 

trees standing knee-deep in inky living, or that life may go on. 
water or strangling in the grey ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^_ 
embrace of kudzu, the Tombigbee 

River churning its muddy way, and a long slash of arrow-straight 
highway through the woods of Lafayette County to Oxford. Over 
and over we passed that prototype of country living, "the sagging 
broken-backed cabin set in its inevitable treeless and grassless plot 
and weathered to the color of an old beehive," just like Flem 
Snopes's place in The Hamlet. How thickly a Faulkner sentence 
reproduces what he handled and smelled and looked at and listened 
to all around him. 

At Tuscaloosa, we went to see the campus of Stillman College, 
one of the black colleges recently closed down by student violence. 
We were told they have a striking new chapel. Our visit was a bit 
rash. We were followed, stopped, and questioned by police. They 
did not exactly use the gentle approach in chasing us out of town. 



26 ^ James S. Torrens, SJ. 



March 29. I went today with George Edsel [occupant of the front part 
of the house where I rented] to Phenix City for the funeral of our 
landlady, Mrs. Austin. The funeral service was to me a startling and 
powerful experience, with a very sturdy gospel-singer (hoarse, 
however, this day) and the preacher's sermon drawn from the Book 
of Samuel (his theme: Jonathan's seat will be left vacant), with its 
gradually building bass rhythms calculated to draw murmurs or calls 
of assent from the congregation. Three or four older women of the 
family broke out into agitated grief, crying out upon the Lord, and 
were gradually quieted by women ushers and their friends as the 
preaching and singing went on. This has an unsettling effect on the 
outside visitor. 

There is clearly some cathartic value in this outburst of emo- 
tion, because the members of the family were all able to take a quiet 
and normal part in the family reception afterwards. They were 
extremely friendly to me as an outsider, and I pitched into the soul 

food with my usual good appetite. 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Here was another very appealing 

instance of that worldwide phe- 

They let me know how upset nomenon, the banquet for the 

they were at the mere idea of dead— where the living feed to go 

the way white English on living, or that life may go on. 

teachers (and their fellow- 

traveling older blacks) are ww , _ 

. ., . j s .1 Holy Thursday. Ray Barreras put 

messing up the minds of the J _ . , <■ , r . 

j x m.» i -x i on a Seder meal for about twenty 

students with white values. , TL L . . . ' 

T ., , . 1 , , of us. It was painstakingly and 

In my case, that included ., , r ., , .? i 

„, ... .. , . t , reverently done, though if I were 

Christianity the teacher of Jewigh { don>t tWnk \ WQuld be 

humility and submission. exact]y happy fo know that imita . 

^_ ^^^^_^^^^_^^^^^ tion Seders are being put on by 

Gentiles. It is how I would feel to 
know that imitation Masses are being carried on in town. Yet a good 
deal is learned about the Exodus story (about the "sensibility" of 
Israel) and about the Jewish sense of "holy family" on such an 
occasion. As for us Catholics, how can we recapture the family-meal 
spirit in the church service? That is a walloping big question, compli- 
cated by the fact that we Western people know almost nothing 
about a ceremonial meal. 



Tuskegee Years -$- 27 



Good Friday Evening. I'm weary — weary of having to play Mister 
Charlie twenty-four hours a day. It will be good to get down to the 
Jesuits at Spring Hill College for a few days. 

April 7. Thus ends a short and very pleasant Easter weekend at 
Mobile. It was a good time to be on the road, the fields full of young 
calves, the pine trees in yellow-green bloom (I didn't know that 
could happen) and, down along the coast at Mobile, a riot of azaleas. 
The bushes and banks of brilliant azalea — white, pink, red, reddish 
orange, reddish purple — leave the passerby stunned. It was good to 
see the California scholastics [who were studying philosophy at Spring 
Hill] and to spend some hours with John Stacer [a Jesuit classmate 
from my theology studies in Belgium], especially out on the beach and 
in the water at Gulf Shores. 



April 17. This evening I went over to the Chicken Coop to get a 
take-out dinner. A young man stood in front of me at the counter 
wearing a khaki cap and, upon the cap, this ink inscription: "Hate 
honkies, love soul/' 

April 25. During the last few weeks the feelings of the student body 
have surfaced abruptly. First of all, Leroi Jones came on campus with 
his contempt for the Western world. (If their culture is so great, why 
is the world so fouled up? Don't be taken in by the individualism of 
those Viennese homosexuals.) His plea was for a sense of black 
community. [Leroi Jones, from Newark, a brilliant poet and caustic social 
observer, soon afterward changed his name to Imamu Amiri Baraka.] 

Jones was followed by the Literary Arts Festival, featuring the 
poets Margaret Danner and Mari Evans, Larry Neal, the anthologist 
and theoretician of black aesthetics, and Hoyt Fuller, editor of Negro 
Digest. Alexander Bell read his paper on Jones's novel, The System of 
Dante's Hell; his reading was carried on Montgomery TV. Shirley 
Staples, Arthur Pfister, and other students read their poems. Arthur 
staged his with interpretative dancing. I was scheduled to preside on 
the second evening, but the "Be Black" atmosphere was too fiery 
and I declined. 

A few of the professional inquisitors on campus went to work 
again on white faculty. In this state of affairs, I put it frankly to a 



28 <0> James S. Torrens, S.J. 



few of my serious students whether or not I should sign my contract 
for next fall. [Santa Clara University was allowing me this additional one- 
semester postponement of my arrival] I assured them I was playing no 
game. I told them I will be happy to return, but I want to know 
whether it is of value to them. They let me know how upset they 
were at the mere idea of the way white English teachers (and their 
fellow-traveling older blacks) are messing up the minds of the 
students with white values. In my case, that included Christianity, 
the teacher of humility and submission. It also includes the rugged 
individualism which has cost the black man so dearly, and the 
ironical coolness of Western intellectuals (to say nothing of their 
depressing pessimism). The students said, "Don't come back." A few 
days later they huddled again and afterwards told me, "Yes, come 
back." Maybe they did not too much mind their taste of Jesuit 
education. I am satisfied. 



May 5. George Edsel was talking today about that lean and hostile 
Southern service-station type that Robert Hayden caught so sharply 
in his poem "Tour 5." We've got to go more than fifty percent of the 
way with such people, he says, "to bring them into being." What a 
neat phrase. He still hopes to make them human. 

May 23. It is two o'clock Friday afternoon of final-exam week, and 
though I should probably still be in my office, I have beaten a 

strategic retreat for home. The stu- 
dents who start showing up from 
/ have to say, when you've now on show up to wrangle, and 

grown up getting all the I have little enough stomach for 

breaks, a footstep into these that. Besides, I have some tough 

other lives on the edge makes decisions about some of them to 
you feel pretty small. calculate and weigh. I don't have 

much psychic energy right now, 

and the students seem to be 

sapped as well. A number of them 

in my exam this morning had colds, looked pale and worn, and one 

even had to head for the dispensary. They (and perhaps I as well) 

are geared so high to exams and marks that it is frightening. 

I tried to make a reasonable test for my American Literature 
class, which turned out instead to be a tough one — a vocabulary 



Tuskegee Years -0- 29 

recognition which set many of them guessing and an objective exam 
about our short stories and authors where many entries were left 
blank. I was up until 1:30 myself last night devising the exam, and 
when I finally turned in there was a bird outside the house some- 
where, perhaps a mockingbird, going on as if it were midday. 

Despite muggy weather the last few weeks and a humidity 

level that wreaks havoc on my asthmatic bellows, there have been 

some wonderful country moments. Two Saturdays ago Lawrence 

McLaughlin [an instructor of English at the Institute] organized a 

motley group of us, in inner tubes, 

to float three hours down a local ^ mm 

river in search of petrified wood. 

We went swirling through plenty when the mml South ' with 

of your rich Southern mud and I al1 its flawing quick passions 

got broiled in the process, but and its frontier code of honor 

what fun! an d its black survival 

., , strategies is remanded to 

Last Monday the Sisters and , . . ° « xf 1 

., „ , ./ , ., TAr t history so deep that people 

the Barreras family and the Wool- .„ . ,. , r A , . r r . 

j u ,. i L -i .t will blink their eyes in 

ards brought in a large family, the , . , , . . , , v T 

Wilsons, from their country shack dt8h ?tef that such a place 

to a park for a cookout. The could have been > and that 

youngsters came all dressed up people could have been strong 

and shy, but when the games °f heart tn lt and des P tte lt 

started and all the food came on, and because of it, Faulkner is 
they really perked up. Miss Wil- where they will have to turn. 
kerson, the public-health nurse, ^ ___ mi ^^^^^^^^ 
was the silent star of the evening. 

She runs clinics all over the county, and knows all these people and 
their food-stamp existence and their troubles with the rent and with 
wells, as if they were just part of her family. I have to say, when 
you've grown up getting all the breaks, a footstep into these other 
lives on the edge makes you feel pretty small. 



Pentecost Sunday. This afternoon I watched the TV program 
Guideline, which featured Father George Clements from Chicago and 
a black sister from Cleveland talking about the Negro in the Catholic 
Church. It's the only Christian group in the country, said Father 
Clements, where you can find congregations entirely black with 
sisters and priests entirely white. Well, I had just come back from 



30 ^ James S. Torrens, S.J. 



celebrating Pentecost and preaching to exactly, or pretty nearly, the 
group of people he was describing. 



September 4. No wonder so much good fiction has been written 
about the South. Even the surface of things is so describable here. 
The thought came to me today in downtown Tuskegee. The suburbs 
of San Jose, where I spent the summer, blend indistinguishably into 
one another, definable by shopping centers and used-car lots. There 
is a blur of contours and a contest of motorists. Tuskegee, although 
sluggish, is of a more manageable shape for the imagination: coeds 
from the college parading into town, older black women by twos 
and threes in floppy hats, coveralled men from the county seated in 
rows under the eaves of stores, a brisk young salesman in white 
shirt, the gnarled and tougher and older white citizen like Conner of 
the lumber store. For setting, oaks and elms under a pale blue sky, 
with lazy distinct heaps of cloud. In the town center, seedy and 
unimproved, still stands the statue of the rebel soldier. 

It is unaccountably strange coming back to Tuskegee. I 
thought of the school and my students often during the summer, 
talked a lot about the past year, and looked forward to returning. 
But it did not take more than twenty-four hours on the spot for 
reality to set in. Sister Joan Lafontaine, of the Grand Rapids Domini- 
cans, was picked as stand-in chair of the department for next 
year — a lovely person but quite a traditional older white, focused on 
rhetoric and speech. What on earth made her step into that hornet's 
nest? [Actually she seems in the long run to have quite held her own.] And 
at St. Joseph's Parish, hope for anything in the way of active liturgy, 
study sessions, or any other effective announcement of the Good 
News to the institute Catholics seems very dim. Corraggio, Giacomo! 



September 23. It has been raining hard enough for the last two days 
to impress even Noah. After the convocation in Tuskegee's startling, 
soaring new chapel, and after substituting for Howard Douville at 
Mass at the VA, I spent the day reading Intruder in the Dust. When 
the rural South, with all its flaming quick passions and its frontier 
code of honor and its black survival strategies is remanded to history 
so deep that people will blink their eyes in disbelief that such a 
place could have been, and that people could have been strong of 



Tuskegee Years ^ 31 



heart in it and despite it and because of it, Faulkner is where they 
will have to turn. 

Father John Connolly [who had been succeeded as provincial by 
Father Patrick Donohoe] died last week. John wore himself out for the 
brethren. He was galled and burdened by the hesitancies and dilem- 
mas and doubts and sometimes insincerities of so many Jesuits. He 
was a source of understanding and encouragement to many, includ- 
ing me in my days of juniorate fog. He had so much innovation to 
puzzle him and haunt his sleep, especially the hue and cry to move 
our school of theology to Berkeley, that no wonder his provincialate 
took its toll. My own Tuskegee project must have worried him. A 
man of great human affability and concern. His holy works are his 
crown. 



October 3. This afternoon, in my old clothes, I was introduced to a 
Tuskegee transfer student as a priest. "You really mean it? You're a 
priest?!" I answered jokingly, "Yes, you won't hold that against me, 
will you?" It's a self-deprecating phrase that I have used before. To 
her credit, she said, "No, I think it's great." When John Henry 
Newman entitled his conversion story Apologia pro vita sua, it was 
not a public statement of embarrassment. 

I went into the state liquor store to buy some beer from a 
pudgy man rooted to his seat behind the counter. I asked him if he 
had been watching the World Series game earlier in the day and he 
said no, only the last few innings. "A nigger comin' in asked me 
what the score was, an' I turned on the set." He used the word 
"nigger" as casually as you would say "bucks" or "booze." This usage 
keeps coming up in the stories of Richard Wright that I have just 
been reading (in Uncle Tom's Children), and always with the impact 
of a cattle prod. It recreates at a stroke an age-old contempt and a 
placid sense of superiority, unreflective but devastating. 

October 13. I drove up to Talladega, just east of Birmingham, to visit 
Tom Grace of the New England Province, a Jesuit scholar and long- 
time professor of English who preceded me to the historically black 
colleges. He lives and teaches at Talladega College, a small liberal- 
arts school. One anecdote from my journey merits recording. The 
Volkswagen I was driving had a flat out in the hills near Talladega, 
and I could not loosen the bolts. I was picked up and brought into a 



32 ^ James S. Torrens, S.J. 



repair shop by Ocie Stone, a deputy sheriff, a tall bony man in a 
black shapeless breadloaf hat, bent over his wheel though friendly 
enough. He gave me his card, which I may just keep. /7 still have it in 
my wallet. I am told his boss controlled the illegal liquor in the county, and 
they eventually caught up with him.] 



October 14. Jackie Huffman talked about pledging time for the 
sorority. "We're polishing ivy until 6 A.M. and then supposed to go 
to class and keep alert. Last week we were told, 'Since you've been 
going faithfully to class, you can afford the two or three cuts this 
week.' It's like I haven't been to school for five weeks." 



November 7. We have just read Walden in my American Lit class, 
about eighty students in two sections. I gave them as assignment to 
write a letter to Thoreau. They seemed to love it, especially after the 
earlier essay I called for on Hawthorne and the Puritans. Some really 
tied into Thoreau for being on an ego trip, for not showing much 
human sympathy, or even for returning from the woods to civiliza- 
tion. Some others were like the 
young woman who said in class, 
Some really tied into Thoreau "I grew up in that cabin and I 
for being on an ego trip, for don't want any more of it." The 

not showing much human majority responded warmly, one 

sympathy, or even for girl because she herself had been 

returning from the woods to part of a Quaker group who built 

civilization. Some others were their own summer quarters at 
like the young woman who cam P for six summers. One wrote 

said in class, "I grew up in in the persona of a contemporary 

that cabin and I don't want friend of Thoreau's, one swung 

any more of it" into Thoreau 's own style. Doing 

your own thing as well as not let- 
^ — ^^^— ^^^— ting oneself be pushed around by 

the government are salient atti- 
tudes of the college generation, so Thoreau could be expected to 
catch on, though he is too celibate for the good pleasure of most. 
Youra Quails, our previous department chair, disapproves of Tho- 
reau, judging his rejection of civilized life to be the opposite of what 
the students need. 



Tuskegee Years <$- 33 



December 29. As I write this, I am looking down from 27,000 feet, 
after dark, at the constellated towns of Alabama, that starfish pattern 
of home lights and traffic lights against the jet black fields and 
woods. I have kissed goodbye to Tuskegee, not without grief. You 
can't just pull up the heart; a network of small roots remains cling- 
ing. My colleagues staging such a whirl of parties just before Christ- 
mas will surely be missed. It is harder still to leave the students who 
are just discovering literature or their ability to write, some wrestling 
desperately with their past and their future, some edging towards 
graduate school. So much regretfully undone. Such a dramatic 
semester! 



III. Afterword 

This did not end my history at Tuskegee. After teaching the 
winter and spring quarters at Santa Clara, I returned for one 
more semester, the fall of 1970, but did not keep up my 
journal. That semester I roomed with Phil Loretan, who had come 
from Notre Dame with his doctorate in nuclear engineering. Phil 
was all warmth and generosity. He never left Tuskegee, marrying 
one of the former Dominican Sisters who had taught at St. Joseph's 
School and devoting himself to projects like sweet-potato farming 
and other services that would benefit the poor of Macon County. He 
died a few years ago, highly admired. 

In 1968, when I left Ann Arbor and our close community of 
Jesuit graduate students — four of us had rented an old house to- 
gether — my one big fear about Tuskegee was loneliness. Loneliness, 
as it turns out, is the one thing that never happened to me there. 
Too much was going on, and I had a supportive community. 

By the fall of 1970, things had very much improved too at the 
local parish. The Josephites had assigned Father Joseph Begay to 
replace Father Flynn as pastor at St. Joseph's Parish and had sent 
Father Joe Doyle to begin a Catholic Newman Center near campus. 

A national struggle taking place in Africa came to involve me 
in Tuskegee, the war for independence of the Ibo people in Nigeria. 
It was known as the war for Biafra, which took such a devastating 
toll through battle and starvation. The institute had a handful of 
Ibos, plus other Nigerians. An Ibo professor, Elechukwu Njaka, 
pressed me to raise funds so a young family member could continue 



34 <$> James S. Torrens, S.J. 



his secondary education outside the country. I raised about $500 
from family and friends. I will not forget the simple meal to which 
he invited me in his apartment, out of gratitude. Eating with my 
fingers the traditional dish called fufu, of the consistency of very soft 
bread, I was struck by the root meaning of the word "compan- 
ion" — the one you invite to take bread with you. 

What perhaps helped me relate well to these Africans was the 
theology studies I had made in Belgium, with classmates from the 
Belgian Congo, which attained independence while I was there and 
became Zaire. In fact I was ordained with the first Rwandan Jesuit, 
Chrisologue Mahame, one of the first victims of the massacres in 
1994 because of his promotion of harmony between the Tutsis and 
Hutus. 

I smile thinking of the Reverend Peter Gomes, a brisk New 
Englander with Ivy League credentials, who had just been ordained 
in 1968 as an American Baptist minister. The students were intrigued 
by this model of a black intellectual, witty and spellbinding in his 
history lectures. Soon thereafter Peter was named university chap- 
lain at Harvard, a post that he has retained to this day along with 
that of Professor of Christian Morals. Peter ranks high on any list of 
outstanding U.S. preachers. 

I remember some favorite students, such as Diane Frazier who 
braved it into graduate school at Auburn and then into television 
newscasting, or Johnny Anderson, later a preacher and civic leader 
in his home town of McComb, Mississippi. And I muse fondly upon 
Milton Davis from St. Joseph's, with his dour wit, who went into the 
law and public life, much to the benefit of blacks in Alabama. 

So now comes the big question for me after thirty-hve years: 
What kind of lasting effect, if any, did these eventful years have on 
me? For an answer I think, first of all, of the Jesuit Volunteer Corps 
with their humorous but pointed motto, "Ruined for Life." After 
Tuskegee, I could not possibly see a lot of things about our country 
and our Jesuit schools in the same light as before. 

I did not seriously weigh settling at Tuskegee, because I felt a 
commitment to a corporate Jesuit enterprise. That meant, specifically, 
taking some root at Santa Clara University, where I had been as- 
signed and had achieved a foothold through four years of summer- 
school teaching. I must admit too that following my particular line of 
scholarship, Modernist poetry and poetics, would have been difficult 



Tuskegee Years <fr 35 

at Tuskegee. I did envision, and actually try, an alternating rhythm 
of teaching — the fall semester at Tuskegee plus the winter and 
spring quarters at Santa Clara. I did it for two years, 1969 and 1970, 
but with the load of Freshman Comp at Santa Clara, I found the 
tandem too exhausting. 

What I brought back to Santa Clara, I believe, was an aware- 
ness of the African-American students who were just beginning to 
appear there, a willingness to help them get up to standards, and a 
feeling for their militancy in those restive times. I still remember two 
of those students in Freshman Comp who engaged me in continual 
arm-wrestling over my expectations and their grades, and I can 
imagine them smiling about that now. 

My fiction courses at Santa Clara allowed me to introduce 
Southern writers, with their sharp detail about the disparities be- 
tween white and black. My poetry courses let me introduce Langs- 
ton Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance, along with a spectrum of 
new black poets. In fact, we brought a handful of these poets to 
campus for readings, including my colleague from Tuskegee, Samuel 
Allen. And we were able to stage a Black Arts Festival of good 
quality. I had no illusions of reaching the majority of our students at 
Santa Clara, whose background was as protected and sheltered as 
mine had been. But I did enjoy conspiring with the African-Ameri- 
can faculty and staff to reach them somehow. 

My chief co-conspirator at Santa Clara was Charles Lampkin of 
the Music and Theater Departments, a television and movie actor, a 
jazz pianist, and an exponent of black culture to schools and other 
audiences. After Charles died, I did what I could to honor him with 
a biographical sketch in the alumni magazine. He was a historic 
character and I had the materials to write more extensively, but I did 
not find the outlet. In recent years, Santa Clara has more resolutely 
spoken a language of diversity. I would hope that African-Americans 
have benefited from this. 

In the mid-seventies, because of the big Hispanic influx into 
California (and because I am pretty good at languages, and because I 
had once entertained missionary aspirations to Latin America), I 
began learning enough Spanish to minister to them. In 1976 the 
Horizons for Justice Program of the American Jesuits took me to 
Mexico for a summer of seminars and immersion. The program 
aimed to create "a constituency for justice." That proved to be the 



36 ^ James S. Torrens, S.J. 

case for me in the early eighties, after I traveled on some human- 
rights delegations to El Salvador and Central America. I found 
myself afterwards as a journalist, speaker, and letter writer to make 
known the woeful conditions and Jesuit struggles there. When I 
joined America in 1990, Latin America became my major topic. 

Among Jesuits in this past generation, a full-court press has 
indeed taken place in support of the Spanish-speaking poor in the 
Americas. Central American Jesuits, who were under the gun liter- 
ally, desperately needed this support. What became, then, of black 
America in my perspective? For one thing, I sensed that class and its 
invidious distinctions was playing the same evil role in Latin Amer- 
ica as race and color prejudice did in the USA. Perhaps my Tuskegee 
years made me more alert to such realities. 

A big grace for me in the last fifteen years has been volunteer- 
ing in prison ministry. I did so especially in New York City through- 
out the nineties, in a women's prison and then in a psychiatric 
prison attached to New York Psychiatric Hospital on Ward's Island, 
just east of Harlem. African-Americans form the predominant prison 
population in America. That unsettling fact should be a continual 
reminder to all of us, and the Society of Jesus in particular, that 
things are far from well in our country. The achievements of the 
black community, with their "eyes on the prize," have been huge 
since the 1960s, but the walking wounded are still innumerable. A 
handful of those to whom I ministered in New York remain vivid in 
my thoughts and prayers. 

When I found myself appointed to the House of Prayer for 
Priests in Los Angeles in 2003, 1 looked around for a Spanish-speak- 
ing congregation where I could serve on Sundays. By a providential 
stroke, I ended up at St. Brigid Church, one of the classic African- 
American parishes in South Central Los Angeles, staffed by none 
other than the Josephite Fathers. It is a center of apostolic radiance 
to African-Americans, with a widely admired choir. Even as I minis- 
ter to the Spanish speakers who have been filtering into the parish 
boundaries, I have rediscovered the tremendous expressiveness of 
African-American religious music and preaching. 

St. Brigid and other parishes of South Central Los Angeles 
devote themselves these days to a supersensitive task — fostering 
mutual respect and even collaboration between two communities 
painfully at odds in this city, the Hispanics and the African-Ameri- 



Tuskegee Years ^ 37 



cans. Everyone here knows of the tensions between adolescents, 
especially in gangs, but the adults feel them sharply as well. The tide 
of immigration has made nothing easier for African-Americans. They 
bear the brunt of competition for jobs and for the fruits of social 
spending. The new arrivals have little understanding of the history 
of segregation — who could expect them to? — but they are very 
sensitive to slights or rough treatment. 

Mutual respect and appreciation is so hard to come by and so 
costly. But that's what "Catholic" has to mean for us, achieving 
brotherhood and sisterhood at all costs. I am proud of Verbum Dei 
High School, the Jesuit Cristo Rey school here in Los Angeles, for 
taking on this challenge full force with its mixed enrollment of black 
and Latino students. 

As to Tuskegee, Virgil was right. Forsan et haec olim meminisse 
juvabit (Perhaps it will please you to remember these old moments 
too). And not just to remember them. To live by them, to have them 
enter into what else you think and say and do. Thank you, Don 
Pedro. 



□ 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 



Editor: 

I am writing an addendum to 
Dennis Smolarski's monograph "Jesu- 
its on the Moon: Seeking God in All 
Things . . . even Mathematics" 
(Spring 2005). 

Dennis was establishing a need of 
the Society to be involved in one of 
the most important aspects of modern 
society, the area of mathematics and 
technology, continuing the tradition 
that originated with Qavius, and in- 
deed not just as they exist in the cur- 
riculum of our educational institu- 
tions. He praised highly the effort of 
the non-educational institution, the 
Vatican Observatory. I would like to 
call the attention of your readers to 
another such organization, the Qa- 
vius Group of Mathematicians. First, 
let me say that in the "Directory of 
the Secretariat for Education of the 
Society of Jesus," the Qavius Group is 
listed under the rubric "International 
Projects and Associations," with my- 
self listed as the coordinator. Let me 
give you a brief history of the group. 
Larry Conlon and I started the group 
in 1963, the year that I was ordained. 
As Dennis stated so well, the climate 
for science and math was not so wel- 
coming at that time in the Society. 
Basically the superiors treated our 
degrees as union cards, with no con- 
cept of the professionalism to which 
we aspired. So Larry and I ap- 
proached the superiors and simply 
asked if we could be free during the 
summer from summer school and 



pastoral assignments. Without going 
into details, we have been at this now 
for forty-three summers! 

During this time we discovered 
what Qavius was all about. And it 
was very much as Dennis described it 
in the last pages of your essay. We 
became a small voice of the Church in 
the mathematics profession. Our invi- 
tations to the Institut des Hautes 
Etudes Scientifiques of France, the 
Institute of Advanced Studies of 
Princeton, and the Centro de Investi- 
gation in Mexico City showed to that 
rather alien society that the Church 
was interested in mathematics. Then 
our invitations to Notre Dame, and 
the Jesuit Universities of New Eng- 
land — Boston College, Holy Cross, 
and Fairfield — gave a visibility to 
mathematics in the Catholic environ- 
ment. One of our group became pres- 
ident of the Mathematical Association 
of America, and the present president 
of the American Mathematical Society 
has been quite cordial to the group. 
What we discovered, however, was 
that we were really founding a faith 
community of religious and laity with 
mathematics as the theme that bond- 
ed us together. This is exactly the 
theme of partnership that the present 
Society is trying to express. At the 
present moment actively we have 
seven Jesuits (three from outside the 
United States), one religious priest, 
not a Jesuit, one Christian Brother, 
one religious sister, two single laymen 



38 



Letters to the Editor 



39 



and one single laywoman; fourteen 
families, including two from Poland. 
We are now on our third generation 
of children (two of whom have al- 
ready completed their degrees in 
mathematics and will be joining the 
group), and the bonding that has oc- 
curred was truly the work of the Spirit. 

Unfortunately, at the present mo- 
ment I just do not know of any 
young Jesuit in the pipeline who is 
interested in mathematics. And this is 
a theme in Dennis's essay. But Clavius 
is assured of making it to fifty years. 
After that it is in the hands of the 
Spirit. 

Andrew P. Whitman, S.J. 

Jesuit Community 

of the Vatican Observatory 
2017 East Lee Street 
Tucson, AZ 



Editor: 

I have just read with great plea- 
sure Dennis Smolarski's essay in 
Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 
on mathematics in the Society. It has 
often puzzled me that many Jesuits 
take satisfaction in their ignorance of 
mathematics and science, and their 
inability to do any but the simplest 
tasks on a computer. In the seven- 
teenth century, Jesuits in Peru were 
deemed ineligible for ordination if 
they had not mastered Quechua. Per- 
haps we should institute something 
similar with respect to computer liter- 
acy in our own time. 

T. Michael McNulty, S.J. 

Leonard Neale House 

1726 New Hampshire Avenue NW 

Washington, DC 20009 



O 



Past Issues: Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets, Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 
1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 
2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 
2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 
3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 
3/2 O'Flaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 
3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's Will (Sept. 1971) 
3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 
4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, II. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 
4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation (June 1972) 
4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A Symposium 
(Oct. 1972) 
5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response (Jan.-Mar. 1973) 
5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy, The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 
5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits (June 1973) 

5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 
6/3 Knight, Joy and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 
7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today (Jan. 1975) 
7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 
7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles (June 1975) 
7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in General 

Congregation XXXII (Nov. 1975) 
8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence (Jan. 1976) 
8/2-3 De la Costa, Sheridan, and others, On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evangelical Poverty 
(Mar.-May 1976) 
8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 
9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-75; Others, Reactions and Explanations 
(Jan.-Mar. 1977) 
9/4 Connolly, Land, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 1977). 
9/5 Gill, A Jesuit's Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kammer, "Burn-Out"— Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist (Jan. 1978) 
10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Connolly-Land 

(Sept. 1978) 
11/1 Clancy, Feeling Bad about Feeling Good (Jan. 1979) 

11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 
11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 
11/5 Conwell, The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 
12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small Apostolic 

Communities (Mar. 1980) 
12/3 Conwell, Living and Dying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 
12/4-5 Schineller, Newer Approaches to Christology and Their Use in the Spiritual Exercises (Sept. -Nov. 
1980) 



13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life (Jan. 1981) 

13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 

13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 

14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation (fan. 1982) 

14/2 Dulles, St. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 

14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 

14/5 Ivern, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 

15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 

15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit Charisms (Mar. 

1983) 

15/3-4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself: A Brief History of the 32nd General Congregation of the 

Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 

15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nadal and the Jesuit Vocation (Mar. 

1984) 

16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East (May 1984) 

16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 

17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celibacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 

17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission (Mar. 1985) 

17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 

17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 

17/5 Kinerk, When Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 1985) 

18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration. (Mar. 1986) 

18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 

18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 

19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment (Jan. 1987) 

19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 

19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 1987) 

20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards (Jan. 1988) 

20/2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 

20/4 McGovern, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 

20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 1988) 

21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships (Jan. 1989) 

21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al., The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor (Mar. 1989) 

21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 

22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life (Jan. 1990) 

22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from a Process Prospective (March 1990) 

22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 

22/4 O'Sullivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 

22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 

23/1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled (Jan. 1991) 

23/2 DiGiacomo, Ministering to the Young (March 1991) 

23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 1991) 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 

23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire" (Nov. 1991) 



24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/2 Donahue, What Does the Lord Require? (March 1993)— ONCE AGAIN AVAILABLE 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 

25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/1 Tetlow, The Most Postmodern Prayer (fan. 1994) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26/4 Foley, Stepping into the River (Sept. 1994) 

26/5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov. 1994) 

27/1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" (Jan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/3 Clooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 Starkloff, "As Different As Night and Day" (Sept. 1996) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Hamm, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 

29/4 Keenan, Are Informationes Ethical? (Sept. 1997) 

29/5 Ferlita, The Road to Bethlehem-Is It Level or Winding? (Nov. 1997) 

30/1 Shore, The Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony and Its Influence on the Spiritual Exercises of 

Ignatius of Loyola (Jan. 1998) 

30/2 Starkloff, "I'm No Theologian, but . . . (or So . . . )?" (March 1998) 

30/3 Torrens, The Word That Clamors (May 1998) 

30/4 Petrik, "Being Sent" (Sept. 1998) 

30/5 Jackson, "One and the Same Vocation" (Nov. 1998) 

31/1 Clifford, Scripture and the Exercises (Jan. 1999) 

31/2 Toohig, Physics Research, a Search for God (March 1999) 

31/3 Fagin, Fidelity in the Church— Then and Now (May 1999) 

31/4 Schineller, Pilgrim Journey of Ignatius (Sept. 1999) 

31/5 Fullam, Juana, S.J.: Status of Women in the Society (Nov. 1999) 

32/1 Langan, The Good of Obedience in a Culture of Autonomy (Jan. 2000) 

32/2 Blake, Listen with Your Eyes (March 2000) 

32/3 Shelton, When a Jesuit Counsels Others (May 2000) 

32/4 Barry, Past, Present, and Future (Sept. 2000) 

32/5 Starkloff, Pilgrimage Re-envisioned (Nov. 2000) 

33/1 Kolvenbach et al., Faith, Justice, and American Jesuit Higher Education Qan. 2001) 

33/2 Keenan, Unexpected Consequences: Persons's Christian Directory (March 2001) 

33/3 Arrupe, Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism (May 2001) 



33/4 Veale, Saint Ignatius Asks, "Are You Sure You Know Who I Am?" (Sept. 2001) 

33/5 Barry and Keenan, How Multicultural Are We? (Nov. 2001) 

34/1 Blake, "City of the Living God" (Jan. 2002) 

34/2 Clooney, A Charism for Dialog (March 2002) 

34/3 Rehg, Christian Mindfulness (May 2002) 

34/4 Brackley, Expanding the Shrunken Soul (Sept. 2002) 

34/5 Bireley, The Jesuits and Politics in Time of War (Nov. 2002) 

35/1 Barry, Jesuit Spirituality for the Whole of Life (Jan. 2003) 

35/2 Madden/Janssens, The Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy (March 2003) 

35/3 Marcouiller, Archbishop with an Attitude (May 2003) 

35/4 Modras, A Jesuit in the Crucible (Sept. 2003) 

35/5 Lucas, Virtual Vessels, Mystical Signs (Nov. 2003) 

36/1 Rausch, Christian Life Communities for Jesuit University Students? (Spring 2004) 

36/2 Bernauer, The Holocaust and the Search for Forgiveness (Summer 2004) 

36/3 Nantais, "Whatever!" Is Not Ignatian Indifference (Fall 2004) 

36/4 Lukacs, The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions (Winter 2004) 

37/1 Smolarski, Jesuits on the Moon (Spring 2005) 

37/2 McDonough, Clenched Fist or Open Hands? (Summer 2005) 

37/3 Torrens, Tuskegee Years (Fall 2005) 



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